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Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

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Morphometric Study for Estimation and Validation of Trunk Transverse Surface Area To Assess Human Drag Force on Water

Jorge Morais / Mário Costa
  • Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
  • Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Erik Mejias
  • Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
  • Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Daniel Marinho
  • University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
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/ António Silva
  • University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
  • Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Tiago Barbosa
  • Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
  • Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2011-07-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-011-0017-x

Morphometric Study for Estimation and Validation of Trunk Transverse Surface Area To Assess Human Drag Force on Water

The aim of this study was to compute and validate estimation equations for the trunk transverse surface area (TTSA) to be used in assessing the swimmer's drag force in both genders. One group of 133 swimmers (56 females, 77 males) was used to compute the estimation equations and another group of 131 swimmers (56 females, 75 males) was used for its validations. Swimmers were photographed in the transverse plane from above, on land, in the upright and hydrodynamic position. The TTSA was measured from the swimmer's photo with specific software. Also measured was the height, body mass, biacromial diameter, chest sagital diameter (CSD) and the chest perimeter (CP). With the first group of swimmers, it was computed the TTSA estimation equations based on stepwise multiple regression models from the selected anthropometrical variables. For males TTSA=6.662*CP+17.019*CSD-210.708 (R2=0.32; Ra2=0.30; P<0.01) and for females TTSA=7.002*CP+15.382*CSD-255.70 (R2=0.34; Ra2=0.31; P<0.01). For both genders there were no significant differences between assessed and estimated mean TTSA. Coefficients of determination for the linear regression models between assessed and estimated TTSA were R2=0.39 for males and R2=0.55 for females. More than 80% of the plots were within the 95% interval confidence for the Bland-Altman analysis in both genders.

Keywords: validation; accuracy; frontal surface area; drag; swimming

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About the article


Published Online: 2011-07-04

Published in Print: 2011-06-01


Citation Information: Journal of Human Kinetics, ISSN (Online) 1899-7562, ISSN (Print) 1640-5544, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-011-0017-x.

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