Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.798
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.252

CiteScore 2016: 1.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.483
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.792

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1899-7562
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 39, Issue 1 (Dec 2013)

Issues

Wave Characteristics in Breaststroke Technique with and Without Snorkel Use

Ana Conceição
  • Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior, Rio Maior, Portugal.
  • Research Center in Sports Science, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ António J. Silva
  • University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.
  • Research Center in Sports Science, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ José Boaventura
  • INESC TEC - INESC Technology and Science (formerly INESC Porto) and ECT - School of Science and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Daniel A. Marinho
  • Corresponding author
  • University of Beira-Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
  • Research Center in Sports Science, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal.
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hugo Louro
  • Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior, Rio Maior, Portugal.
  • Research Center in Sports Science, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-12-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2013-0081

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to examine the characteristics of waves generated when swimming with and without the use of Aquatrainer® snorkels. Eight male swimmers performed two maximal bouts of 25 m breaststroke, first without the use of a snorkel (normal condition) and then using a snorkel (snorkel condition). The body landmarks, centre of the mass velocity, stroke rate, stroke length, stroke index, and Strouhal number (St) were quantified. Fourier analysis was conducted to determine the frequency, amplitude, and phase characteristics of the vertical undulations. We also determined the undulation period, the first and second harmonic wave percentage, and the contribution of these components to the power of each of the wave signals. The first wave harmonics had a frequency of 0.76 Hz (normal condition) and 0.78 Hz (snorkel condition), and the second wave harmonics had a frequency of 1.52 Hz (normal condition) and 1.56 Hz (snorkel condition). Under the normal conditions, the wave amplitude was higher on the vertex (0.72 m) and cervical (0.32 m) than that produced under snorkel conditions (0.71 m and 0.28 m, respectively). The lowest values were found in the hip (0.03 m in normal conditions, and 0.02 m in snorkel conditions) and in the trunk (0.06 m in normal conditions, and 0.04 m in snorkel conditions). It can be concluded that snorkel use seems to lead to slight changes in the biomechanical pattern in swimming velocity, as well as several stroke mechanical variables.

Keywords : competitive swimming; stroke rate; stroke length; swimming snorkel; wave motion; Fourier analysis

  • Abdel-Aziz YI, Karara HM. Direct linear transformation from comparator coordinates into object space coordinates in close-range photogrammetry. In: Symposium on Close-Range Photogrammetry, Falls Church: American Society of Photogrammetry, 1-18; 1971Google Scholar

  • Alexander RM, Jayes AS. Fourier analysis of forces exerted in walking and running. J Biomech, 1980; 13: 383-90CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Barbosa TM, Keskinen KL, Fernandes RJ, Colaço P, Lima AB, Vilas-Boas JP. Energy cost and intracyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass in butterfly stroke. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2005; 93: 519-523PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Costill D, Kovaleski J, Porter D, Fielding R, King D. Energy expenditure during front crawl swimming: predicting success in middle-distance events. Int J Sports Med, 1985; 6: 266-270.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • De Leva P. Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov’s segment inertia parameters. J Biomech, 1996; 29: 1223-1230CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Elliot DF, Rao KR. Fast Transforms: Algorithms, Analyses and Applications. Academic Press; 1982Google Scholar

  • Fish FE, Rohr JJ. Review of dolphin hydrodynamics and swimming performance. Technical Report 1801. San Diego, CA: US Navy; 1999Google Scholar

  • Hirata RP, Duarte M. Effect of relative knee position on internal mechanical loading during squatting. Braz JPhysical Therapy, 2007; 11: 107-111Google Scholar

  • Hochtsein S, Blickhan R. Human Undulatory Swimming: Kinematics, Flow and Mechanical Model. In: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming XI. Eds: Kjendlie P-L, Stallman TK and Cabri J, Oslo: NorwegianSchool of Sport Sciences, 74; 2010Google Scholar

  • Kelso JA, Holt KG, Flatt AE. The role of proprioception in the perception and control of human movement: toward a theoretical reassessment. Percept Psychophys, 1980; 28: 45-52CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kelso JA, Holt KG, Rubin P, Kugler PN. Patterns of human interlimb coordination emerge from the properties of non-linear, limit cycle oscillatory processes: theory and data. J Mot Behav, 1981; 13: 226-61Google Scholar

  • Kjendlie PL, Stallman R, Stray-Gundersen J. Influences of breathing valve on swimming technique. In: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming IX. Eds: Chatard JC, France: University of Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, 69-73; 2003Google Scholar

  • Rodríguez FA, Keskinen KL, Kusch M, HoVmann U. Validity of a swimming snorkel for metabolic testing. Int J Sports Med, 2008; 29:120-128PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Sanders R, Cappaert JM, Devlin RK. Wave characteristics of butterfly swimming. J Biomech, 1995; 28: 9-16PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sanders R, Cappaert JM, Pease DL. Wave characteristics of Olympic breaststroke Swimmers. J Appl Biomech, 1998; 14: 40-51Google Scholar

  • Thornton KM. Learning from the Olympians: Butterfly stroke rhythm. Swimming World, 28-30; 1984Google Scholar

  • Toussaint H, Meulemans A, De Groot G, Hollander AP, Schreurs A, Vervoon K. Respiratory valve for oxygen uptake measurement during swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1987; 56: 363-366CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Triantafyllou GS, Triantafyllou MS. An efficient swimming machine. Scientific American, 1995; 64-70Google Scholar

  • Ungerechts BE. A comparison of the movements of the rear parts of dolphins and butterfly swimmers. In: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Eds: Hollander AP, Champaign. Human Kinetics, 1982; 215-221Google Scholar

  • Ungerechts BE, Daly D, Zhu JP. What dolphins tell us about hydrodynamics. J Swim Res, 1998; 13: 1-7Google Scholar

  • Videler J, Kamermans P. Differences between upstroke and downstroke in swimming dolphins. J Exp Biol, 1985; 119: 265-274PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Vilas-Boas JP, Cunha P, Figueiras T, Ferreira M, Duarte J. Movement analysis in simultaneously swimming technique. In: ölner Schwimmsporttage. Symposiumsbericht Sport Fahneman Verlag. Bockenem, Eds: Daniel K, Hoffman U, Klauck J, Germany, 95-103; 1997Google Scholar

  • Wilson DJ, Smith BK, Gibson JK. Accuracy of reconstructed angular estimates obtained with the Ariel Performance Analysis System. American Physical Therapy Association, 1997; 77: 1741-6 Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-12-31

Published in Print: 2013-12-01


Citation Information: Journal of Human Kinetics, ISSN (Online) 1899-7562, ISSN (Print) 1640-5544, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2013-0081.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in