McFarlane B., The science of hurdling and speed. Canadian Track and Field Association, Ottawa 2000.
Iskra J., Somatic and functional aspects of results in male hurdle races [in Polish]. AWF, Katowice 2001.
Jarver J. (ed.), The hurdles. Contemporary theory, technique and training. Tafnews Press, Mountain View 2004.
Webster F. I., Athletic up to date. Frederick Warner and Co., London 1929.
Erdmann W. S., Picture methods in study of technique in sport [in Polish]. In: Urbanik Cz. (ed.), Problems of biomechanics in sport - technique of movement. AWF, Warszawa 2003, 19-40.
Iskra J., Coh M., A review of biomechanical studies in hurdle races. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 2006, 1, 84-102.
Wilkerson J. D., Biomechanics. In: Massengale J. D., Swanson R. A. (eds.), The history of exercise and sport sciences. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1997, 321-366.
Bedini R.,100 m and 110 m hurdle races [in Italian]. Atleticastudi, 1988, 3-4, 479-520.
Fortune M. A., Biomechanical analysis of 110 m hurdles. Track Technique, 1988, 105, 3355-3356; 3365.
Rash G. S., Garrett J., Voisin M., Kinematic analysis of top American female 100-meter hurdles. Int J Sport Biomech, 1990, 4, 386-393.
McDonald C., Dapena J., Angular momentum in the men's 110-m and woman's 100-m hurdles races. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 1991, 12, 1392-1402.
McDonald C., Dapena J., Linear kinematics of men's 110-m and women's 100-m hurdles races. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1991, 12, 1382-1391.
McLean B., The biomechanics of hurdling: force plate analysis to assess hurdling technique. New Studies in Athletics, 1994, 4, 55-58.
Salo A., Grimshaw P. N., Marar L., 3-D biomechanical analysis of sprint hurdles at different competitive levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1997, 29 (2), 231-237.
Coh M., Dolenec A., Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of hurdle technique used by Brigita Bukovec. New Studies in Athletics, 1996, 11 (1), 63-69.
Coh M., Kostelic J., Pintaric S., A biomechanical model of the 100 m hurdles of Brigita Bukovec. Track Coach, 1998, 142, 4521-4529.
Coh M., Biomechanical analysis of Colin Jackson's hurdle clearance technique. New Studies in Athletics, 2003, 1, 33-40.
Iskra J., Endurance in the 400 meters hurdles. New Studies in Athletics, 1991, 2, 43-50.
Iskra J., Biomechanical study in improvement training of 400 m hurdlers. In: Urbanik Cz. (ed.), Biomechanics of movement. Chosen problems [in Polish]. AWF, Warszawa 2007, 85-94.
Iskra J., Changes of stride pattern of world class 400-m hurdlers - reasons and consequences. In: International Convention on Sciences, Education and Medicine in Sport. Proceedings. People's Sports Publishing House, Beijing 2008, 1, 159.
Iskra J., Bacik B., Król H., The effect of specific exercises on changes in hurdle technique. In: Raczek J., Waśkiewicz Z., Juras G. (eds.), Current Research in Motor Control. AWF, Katowice 2000, 104-117.
Iskra J., Walaszczyk A., Types of stride pattern and time distribution in elite 400-m hurdles. Motor Control, 2007, 11, suppl., 185-186.
Ditoilo M., Analysis of the race distribution for male 400 m hurdlers competing at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. New Studies in Athletics, 2000, 3, 15-30.
Bankin W. N., Analysis of the competition activity of young female 400 m hurdlers of different levels of performance [in Russian]. Teoria i Praktyka Fiziczeskoj Kultury, 1995, 3, 3-6.
Bollschweiler L., A biomechanical analysis of male and female intermediate hurdlers and steeplechasers. Brighton Young University, Brighton 2008.
Röll B., A study of the women's 400 m hurdles [in German]. Leistungssport, 1976, 2, 116-124.
Dakin N., National 400H event project - continuity of speed across the barriers. Available from: URL: http://www.ukhurdlesclub.net
Schwirtz A., Fatigue effects in the 400 m hurdles technique. In: Brüggemann G.-P., Rühl J. K. (eds.) Techniques in Athletics. The First International Conference, Colonge 7-9 June 1990. Sport und Buch Strauss, Colonge 1990, 2, 440-446.
Horie M., Ushizu A., Yamamoto H., How the pelvis moves during running in experienced hurdlers. In: Schwameder H., Strutzenberger G., Fastenbauer V., Lindinger S., Müller E. (eds.), XXIV International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. ISBS, Salzburg 2006, 340.
Chow J. W., A panning videographic technique to obtain selected kinematic characteristics of the strides in sprint hurdling. J Appl Biomech, 1993, 9 (2), 149-159.
Salo A., Repeatability of motion analysis and reproducibility of athletes in sprint hurdles. In: T. Bauer (ed.), XIII International Symposium for Biomechanics in Sport. Lakehead University, Thunder Bay 1995, 380-383.
Salo A., Grimshow P. N., An examination of kinematic variability of motion analysis in sprint hurdles. J Appl Biomech, 1998, 14 (2), 211-222.
Mann R., Herman J., Kinematic analysis of olympic hurdle performance: woman's 100 metres. Int J Sport Biomech, 1985, 2, 163-173.
Mero A., Luhtanen P., Biomechanische Unterschung des Hürdenlaufs wahrend der Weltmeisterschaften in Helsinki. Leistungssport, 1986, 1, 42-43.
Chow J. W., Maximum speed of female high school runners. Int J Sport Biomech, 1987, 3, 110-127.
Iskra J., Bacik B., Hurdle clearance technique of European Champion in 400 m. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 1999, 5, 70.
Dworak L. B., Iskra J., Kołaczkowski Z., Mączyński J., The dynamic of take-off and landing in hurdles [in Polish]. Biol Sport, 1998, 15, suppl. 8, 81-86.
Lacour J. R., Bouvat E., Barthelemy J. C., Post-competition blood lactate concentrations as indicators of anaerobic energy expenditure during 400-m and 800-m races. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1990, 61 (3-4), 172-176, doi: 10.1007/BF00357594. [CrossRef]
Kłapcińska B., Iskra J., Poprzęcki S., Grzesiok K., The effect of sprint (300 m) running on plasma lactate, uric acid, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in competitive hurdlers and untrained men. J Sport Med Phys Fitness, 2001, 3, 306-311.
Spencer M. R., Gastin P. B., Energy system contribution during 200- to 1500-m running in highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001, 33 (1), 157-162.
Charatimowa L. G., Physiological and biochemical aspects of the adaptation of The organism of 400m hurdlers to intensive loads [in Russian]. Teoria i Praktika Fiziczeskoj Kultury, 1991, 11, 9-12.
Gupta S., Goswami M., Mukhopadhyay S., Heart rate and blood lactate in 400 m flat and 400 m hurdle running: a comparative study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1999, 43 (3), 361-366.
Nummela A., Rusko H., Mero A., EMG activities and ground reaction forces during fatigued and non-fatigued sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1994, 26 (5), 605-609. [PubMed]
Iwkin G. W., Jegorow A. S., Żukow N. L., Hurdle races contemporary technique [in Russian]. Teoria i Praktyka Fiziczeskoj Kultury, 1987, 9, 32-34.
Brüggemann G.-P., Glad B., Time analysis of the 400 metres hurdles events. In: Brüggemann G.-P., Glad B. (eds.), Scientific research project at the Games of the XXIVth Olympiad - Seoul 1988. International Amateur Athletic Federation, Monaco 1988, 133-176.
Iskra J., Characteristics of 400 m hurdle rhythm [in Polish]. Trening, 1997, 5, 41-60.
Green T., Plunk J., Sherman N., Gillespie J., Martin C., A survey on the effect of line assignment in sprinting the curve portion of a 400-meter track. Coach and Athletic Director, 2001, 9, 57-60.
Iskra J., Kinematic parameters of "dominant" and "alternate" lead leg in 400-m hurdle clearance technique. In: Juras G. (ed.), Motor Control 2008. From Theories to Clinical Applications. AWF, Katowice 2009, 56-58.
Ward-Smith A. J., A mathematical analysis of the influence of adverse and favorable winds on sprinting. J Biomech, 1985, 18 (5), 351-357. [CrossRef]
Ward-Smith A. J., New insights into the effect of wind assistance on sprinting performance. J Sport Sci, 1999, 17 (4), 325-334, doi: 10.1080/026404199366037. [CrossRef]
Quinn M. D., The effects of wind and altitude in the 400-m sprint. J Sports Sci, 2004, 22 (11-12), 1073-1081, doi: 10.1080/02640410410001730016. [CrossRef]
Mureika J. R., Modeling wind and altitude effects in the 200-m sprint. Can J Phys, 2003, 81 (7), 895-910, doi: 10.1139/p03-062. [CrossRef]
Quinn M. D., External efforts in the 400-m hurdles race. J Appl Biomech, 2010, 26 (2), 171-179.
Dołgij M., Hurdle distances are related. Modern Athlete and Coach, 1976, 5-6, 35-36.
Hunter I., Lindley B. K., Andersen K. R., Gender differences and biomechanics in the 3000 m steeplechase water jump. J Sports Sci Med, 2008, 7, 218-222.
Susanka P., Presentation of biomechanical knowledge of hurdle running. In: G.-P. Brüggemann, J. K. Rühl (eds.), Technique in athletics. he First International Conference, Colonge 7-9 June 1990. Sport und Buch Strauss, Colonge 1990, 1, 49-62.
Kelso J. S., Southard D. L., Goodman D., On the coordination of two-handed movements. J Exp Psychol, 1979, 5 (2), 229-238. doi: 10.1037/0096-15188.8.131.52 [CrossRef]
Hay L., Schoebel P., Spatio-temporal invariants in hurdle racing patterns. Hum Mov Sci, 1990, 9 (1), 37-54, doi: 10.1016/0167-9457(90)90034-B. [CrossRef]
Austin G. P., Garrett G. E., Bohannon R. W., Kinematic analysis of obstacle clearance during locomotion. Gait and Posture, 1999, 10 (2), 109-120, doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00022-3. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
Bartlett R., Bussey M., Flyger N., Movement variability cannot be determined reliably from no-marker conditions. J Biomech, 2006, 39 (16), 3076-3079, doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.10.020. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
Walaszczyk A., Gasilewski J., Borysiuk Z., Effect of special technical training on results in different variations of the sprint hurdle run. In: International Convention on Sciences, Education and Medicine in Sport. Proceedings. People's Sports Publishing House, Beijing 2008, 3, 429.
Erdmann W., Biomechanic and somatic criteria of 400 m male hurdlers selection [in Polish]. AWF, Gdańsk 1976.
Iskra J., Walaszczyk A., Mehlich R., Principles of 400-m hurdle training. Track Coach, 2006, 177, 5641.
Król H., Bacik B., Kinematics of the hurdling stride as a function of hurdle height [in Polish]. Antropomotoryka, 1997, 16, 103-111.
Stein N., Reflection on a change in the height of the hurdles in the women's sprint hurdles event. New Studies in Athletics, 2000, 2, 15-19.
Grimshaw P., Marar L., Salo A., Longden B., Vernon J., Biomechanical analysis of sprint hurdles. Athletics Coach, 1994, 4, 10-12.
The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw; University School of Physical Education, Krakow
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.250
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.469
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.458
Biomechanical Studies on Running the 400 M Hurdles
Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland1
University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia2
This content is open access.
Citation Information: Human Movement. Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 315–323, ISSN (Online) 1899-1955, ISSN (Print) 1732-3991, DOI: 10.2478/v10038-011-0035-5, December 2011
- Published Online:
Biomechanical Studies on Running the 400 M Hurdles
Purpose. Biomechanical research conducted on hurdling are the basis for analysis of technique used in running disciplines. However, the 400 m hurdle run is an athletic discipline rarely subjected to individual biomechanical study. The aim of this study was to introduce the various forms of biomechanical studies on this difficult-to-quantify athletic event. Methods. In this study, 64 biomechanical articles were assessed, each covering various topics such as kinematics, dynamics, accelometrics and rhythm knowledge in the both the men's and women's 400 m hurdles. This was conducted with regard to the specificity of studies on the 400 m hurdles, including their types, methods and difficulties. The characteristics of the study were divided, among others, into: physiological effort, centrifugal force, dynamics of movement, stride rhythm, the level of abilities, laterality and type of body build. Results. Numerous sources allowed the creation of a general outline of present biomechanical studies. Conclusions. Within the context of the conducted analysis on the present state of biomechanical analysis on the 400 m hurdles, a number of basic principles were outlined that could determine the effectiveness of future research possibilities for scientists on the 400 m hurdles.