Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Human Movement

The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.208
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.230

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 17, Issue 1


Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

Matthew R. Rhea
  • Corresponding author
  • A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA, Kinesiology Department, 5850 East Still Circle, Mesa AZ 85206, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Joseph G. Kenn / Mark D. Peterson / Drew Massey / Roberto Simão / Pedro J. Marin / Mike Favero / Diogo Cardozo
  • Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Granbery Methodist College, Juiz de Fora, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Darren Krein
Published Online: 2016-06-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2016-0006


Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat) performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05); however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

Keywords: vertical jump; speed; squat depth; performance enhancement; sports conditioning


  • 1. Kenn J., The coach’s strength training playbook. Coaches Choice, Monterey 2003.Google Scholar

  • 2. Siff M.C., Supertraining. Supertraining Institute, Denver, Colorado 2003.Google Scholar

  • 3. Chandler T.J., Wilson G.D., Stone M.H., The squat exercise: attitudes and practices of high school football coaches. Natl Strength Cond Assoc J, 1989, 11 (1), 30-36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4. Chandler T.J., Wilson G.D., Stone M.H., The effect of the squat exercise on knee stability. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1989, 21 (3), 299-303. Available from: http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1989&issue=06000&article=00012&type=abstractGoogle Scholar

  • 5. Klein K.K., The deep squat exercise as utilized in weight training for athletes and its effects on the ligaments of the knee. JAPMR, 1961, 15 (1), 6-11.Google Scholar

  • 6. Wilson G.J., Newton R.U., Murphy A.J., Humphries B.J., The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993, 25 (11), 1279-1286. Available from: ournals.lww.com/acsm-msse/ pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1993&issue=11000&art icle=00013&type=abstract.Google Scholar

  • 7. Weiss L.W., Frx A.C., Wood L.E., Relyea G.E., Melton C., Comparative effects of deep versus shallow squat and legpress training on vertical jumping ability and related factors. J Strength Cond Res, 2000, 14 (3), 241-247.Google Scholar

  • 8. Escamilla R.F., Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001, 33 (1), 127-141. Available from: http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2001&issue=01000&article=00020&type=abstract.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9. Rogers L., Sherman T., Leg press versus squat. Strength Cond J, 2001, 23 (4), 65-69.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Caterisano A., Moss R.F., Pellinger T.K., Woodruff K., Lewis V.C., Booth W. et al., The effect of back squat depth on the EMG activity of 4 superficial hip and thigh muscles. J Strength Cond Res, 2002, 16 (3), 428-432.Google Scholar

  • 11. Drinkwater E.J., Moore N.R., Bird S.P., Effects of changing from full range of motion to partial range of motion on squat kinetics. J Strength Cond Res, 2012, 26 (4), 890-896, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318248ad2e.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Lindh M., Increase of muscle strength from isometric quadriceps exercises at different knee angles. Scand J Rehabil Med, 1979, 11 (1), 33-36.Google Scholar

  • 13. Knapik J.J., Mawdsley R.H., Ramos M.U., Angular specificity and test mode specificity of isometric and isokinetic strength training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1983, 5 (2), 58-65, doi: 10.2519/jospt.1983.5.2.58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Thepaut-Mathieu C., Van Hoecke J., Maton B., Myoelectrical and mechanical changes linked to length specificity during isometric training. J Appl Physiol, 1988, 64 (4), 1500-1505.Google Scholar

  • 15. Kitai T.A., Sale D.G., Specificity of joint angle in isometric training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1989, 58 (7), 744-748, doi: 10.1007/BF00637386.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16. Weir J.P., Housh T.J., Weir L.L., Electromyographic evaluation of joint angle specificity and cross-training after isometric training. J Appl Physiol, 1994, 77 (1), 197-201.Google Scholar

  • 17. Weir J.P., Housh T.J., Weir L.L., Johnson G.O., Effects of unilateral isometric strength training on joint angle specificity and cross-training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1995, 70 (4), 337-343, doi: 10.1007/BF00865031.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18. Schoenfeld B.J., Squatting kinematics and kinetics and their application to exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2010, 24 (12), 3497-3506, doi: 10.1519/ JSC.0b013e3181bac2d7.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Baechle T.R., Earle R.W., Essentials of strength training and conditioning. 3rd edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2008.Google Scholar

  • 20. Rhea M.R., Determining the magnitude of treatment effects in strength training research through the use of the effect size. J Strength Cond Res, 2004, 18 (4), 918-920.Google Scholar

  • 21. Zatsiorsky V.M., Science and practice of strength training. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1995.Google Scholar

  • 22. Rhea M.R., Alvar B.A., Burkett L.N., Ball S.D., A metaanalysis to determine the dose response for strength development. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2003, 35 (3), 456-464, doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000053727.63505.D4.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-09-22

Accepted: 2016-03-21

Published Online: 2016-06-28

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Human Movement, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 43–49, ISSN (Online) 1899-1955, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2016-0006.

Export Citation

© Human Movement. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in