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Human Movement

The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw

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CiteScore 2016: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.208
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.230

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Volume 18, Issue 3


Sex Differences in Frontal and Transverse Plane Hip and Knee Kinematics During the Modified Star Excursion Balance Test

Brad W. Willis / Swithin Razu / Kelli Baggett / Amirhossein Jahandar / Aaron D. Gray
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
  • Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marjorie Skubic
  • College of Engineering/Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Seth L. Sherman / Kyle Blecha / Trent M. Guess
  • School of Health Professions/Physical Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-10-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2017-0028


Purpose. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT) assesses dynamic neuromuscular control, with predictive ability regarding lower extremity injury risk. Previous kinematic mSEBT analyses are limited to sex differences between injured or fatigued populations or non-fatigued groups in the sagittal plane only. We hypothesize that sex differences exist in the frontal and transverse plane kinematics of the hip and knee in healthy, non-fatigued subjects during the mSEBT. Methods. The descriptive laboratory study involved 38 healthy subjects: 20 males (aged 24.8 ± 2.7 years) and 18 females (24.1 ± 3.7 years). Peak kinematics, obtained by a VICONTM motion system, of the hip and knee in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane were compared during the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach of the mSEBT. Wilcoxon rank test with significant differences at p < 0.05 was used. Results. Kinematic differences existed between the groups in the frontal and transverse plane of the hip and knee in all reach directions (p < 0.05). No differences were found in the sagittal plane of the hip or knee between the groups. Conclusions. Sex differences exist in frontal and transverse plane kinematics of the hip and knee during the mSEBT. The mSEBT may be enhanced as an injury prediction tool, if frontal and transverse plane kinematics were included during risk assessment screening.

Keywords: injury prevention; gender differences; lower extremity; mSEBT


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About the article

Received: 2017-01-04

Accepted: 2017-08-08

Published Online: 2017-10-31

Published in Print: 2017-09-26

Citation Information: Human Movement, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 26–33, ISSN (Online) 1899-1955, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2017-0028.

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© Human Movement. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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