Apter, Micheal J. 1991. A structural-phenomenology of play. In J. H. Kerr and M. J. Apter (eds.), Adult play: A reversal theory approach, 13–29. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
Asburn-Nardo, Leslie, Katherine A. Morris & Stephanie A. Goodwin. 2008. The confronting prejudiced responses (CPR) model: Applying CPR in organizations. Academy of Management Learning & Education 7(3). 332–342.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blanchard, Fletcher A., Christian S. Crandall, John C. Brigham & Leigh Vaughn. 1994. Condemning and condoning racism: A social context approach to interracial settings. Journal of Applied Psychology 79(6). 993–997.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Buhrmester, Michael, Tracy Kwang & Samuel D. Gosling. 2011. Amazon’s mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science 6(1). 3–5.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Cowan, Gloria & Cyndi Hodge. 1996. Judgements of hate speech: The effects of target group, publicness, and behavioral responses of the target. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26(4). 355–374.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Czopp, Alexander M. & Leslie A. Ashburn-Nardo. 2012. Interpersonal confrontations of prejudice. In W. Russell & C. A. Russell (eds.), Psychology of prejudice: Contemporary issues, 175–201. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Czopp, Alexander M. & Margo J. Monteith. 2003. Confronting prejudice (literally): Reactions to confrontations of racial and gender bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29(4). 532–544.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Czopp, Alexander M., Margo J. Monteith & Aimee Y. Mark. 2006. Standing up for a change: Reducing bias through interpersonal confrontation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90(5). 784–803.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dickter, Cheryl L., Julie A. Kittel & Ivo I. Gyurovski. 2011. Perceptions of non-target confronters in response to racist and heterosexist remarks. European Journal of Social Psychology 42(1). 112–119.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Dodd, Elizabeth H., Traci A. Giuliano, Jori M. Boutell & Brooke E. Moran. 2001. Respected or rejected: Perceptions of women who confront sexist remarks. Sex Roles 45(7–8). 567–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ford, Thomas E., Christine F. Boxer, Jacob Armstrong & Jessica R. Edel. 2008. More than “just a joke”: The prejudice-releasing function of sexist humor. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34(2). 159–170.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Ford, Thomas E., Julie A. Woodzicka, Shane R. Triplett, Annie O. Kochersberger, & Christopher J. Holden. 2014. Not all groups are equal: Differential vulnerability of social groups to the prejudice-releasing effects of disparagement humor. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 17(2). 178–199.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Glick, Peter & Susan T. Fiske. 2001. An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as conplementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologys 56(2). 109–118.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goethals, George R., David M. Messick & Scott T. Allison. 1991. The uniqueness bias: Studies of constructive social comparison. In J. E. Suls and T. A. E. Wills (eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Gulker, Jill E., Aimee Y. Mark & Margo J. Monteith. 2013. Confronting prejudice: The who, what, and why of confrontation effectiveness. Social Influence 8(4). 280–293.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaiser, Cheryl R. & Carol T. Miller. 2001. Stop complaining! The social costs of making attributions to discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27(2). 254–263.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mallett, Robert K., Timothy D. Wilson & Daniel T. Gilbert. 2008. Expect the unexpected: Failure to anticipate similarities when predicting the quality of an intergroup interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94. 265–277.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Rod A. 2007. The psychology of humor: An integrative approach. Elsevier: Boston.Google Scholar
Monteith, M. J., Patricia G. Devine & Julia Zuwerink. 1993. Self-directed vs. Other-Directed affect as a consequence of prejudice-related discrepancies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(2). 198–210.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Saunders, Kristin A. & Charlene Y. Senn. 2009. Should I confront him? Men’s reactions to hypothetical confrontations of peer sexual harassment. Sex Roles 61(5). 399–415.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Swim, Janet K., Laurie L. Cohen & Lauri L. Hyers. 1998. Experiencing everyday prejudice and discrimination. In Janet K. Swim & Charles Stangor (eds.), Prejudice: The target’s perspective, 37–60. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Swim, Janet K. & Lauri L. Hyers. 1999. Excuse me—what did you just say?!: Women’s public and private reactions to sexist remarks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35(1). 68–88.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zillmann, Dolf. 1983 . Disparagement humor. In Paul E. McGhee & Jeffrey H. Goldstein (eds.), Handbook of humor research, 1. 85–107. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
About the article
Julie A. Woodzicka
Julie A. Woodzicka is a Professor of Psychology at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, United States. She received her B.A. from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire and her Ph.D. from Boston College. Her research examines social and interpersonal consequences of disparagement humor.
Robyn K. Mallett
Robyn K. Mallett is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. She completed her B.A. at the University of Alaska Anchorage, her Ph.D. in Social Psychology at the Pennsylvania State University, and a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Virginia. Her research investigates pathways to positive intergroup relations by examining the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of intergroup contact.
Shelbi Hendricks is a Psychology and Business Administration student at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, United States. She is expected to graduate in May 2016.
Astrid V. Pruitt
Astrid V. Pruitt received her BA in Psychology and East Asian Languages and Literature from Washington and Lee University in 2014. She is currently studying design and business in the Kaospilot Program, Aarhus, Denmark.
Published Online: 2015-04-25
Published in Print: 2015-05-01
Funding: This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BCS-1014562 awarded to Julie A. Woodzicka.