Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

i-com

Journal of Interactive Media

Editor-in-Chief: Ziegler, Jürgen

Online
ISSN
2196-6826
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 16, Issue 3

Issues

Perceptual Rules for Building Enhancements in 3D Virtual Worlds

Patrick Tutzauer / Susanne Becker / Norbert Haala
Published Online: 2017-11-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2017-0022

Abstract

While the generation of geometric 3D virtual models has become feasible to a great extent, the enrichment of the resulting urban building models with semantics remains an open research question in the field of geoinformation and geovisualisation. This additional information is not only valuable for applications like Building Information Modeling (BIM) but also offers possibilities to enhance the visual insight for humans when interacting with that kind of data. Depending on the application, presenting users the highest level of detail of building models is often neither the most informative nor feasible way. For example when using mobile apps, resources and display sizes are quite limited. A concrete use case is the imparting of building use types in urban scenes to users. Within our preliminary work, user studies helped to identify important features for the human ability to associate a building with its correct usage type. In this work we now embed this knowledge into building category-specific grammars to automatically modify the geometry of a building to align its visual appearance to its underlying use type. If the building category for a model is not known beforehand, we investigate its feature space and try to derive its use type from there. Within the context of this work, we developed a Virtual Reality (VR) framework that gives the user the possibility to switch between different building representation types while moving in the VR world, thus enabling us in the future to evaluate the potential and effect of the grammar-enhanced building model in an immersive environment.

Keywords: Virtual 3D Building Models; Perception-based Rules; VR

References

  • [1]

    Adabala, N. (2009). A technique for building representation in oblique view maps of modern urban areas. The Cartographic Journal, 46(2):104–114.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    Becker, S. (2009). Generation and application of rules for quality dependent façade reconstruction. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(6):640–653.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Biljecki, F., Ledoux, H., and Stoter, J. (2016). Generation of multi-LOD 3D city models in CityGML with the procedural modelling engine Random3Dcity. ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., pages 51–59.

  • [4]

    Brenner, C. and Ripperda, N. (2006). Extraction of facades using rjmcmc and constraint equations. Photogrammetric Computer Vision, pages 155–160.

  • [5]

    Debevec, P. E., Taylor, C. J., and Malik, J. (1996). Modeling and Rendering Architecture from Photographs: A Hybrid Geometry-and Image-Based Approach. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pages 11–20. ACM.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Fritsch, D., Khosravani, A. M., Cefalu, A., and Wenzel, K. (2011). Multi-Sensors and Multiray Reconstruction for Digital Preservation. In Photogrammetric Week, volume 11, pages 305–323.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Glander, T. and Döllner, J. (2009). Abstract representations for interactive visualization of virtual 3D city models. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 33(5):375–387.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Grabler, F., Agrawala, M., Sumner, R. W., and Pauly, M. (2008). Automatic Generation of Tourist Maps, volume 27. ACM.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Gröger, G. and Plümer, L. (2012). CityGML – interoperable semantic 3D city models. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 71:12–33.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Haala, N. (2013). The landscape of dense image matching algorithms.

  • [11]

    Haala, N. and Kada, M. (2010). An update on automatic 3D building reconstruction. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 65(6):570–580.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Han, M. (2016). Photogrammetry in Virtual Reality Environments. Master’s thesis, University of Stuttgart, Institute for Photogrammetry.

  • [13]

    Kolbe, T. H., Gröger, G., and Plümer, L. (2005). CityGML: Interoperable Access to 3D City Models. In Geo-Information for Disaster Management, pages 883–899. Springer.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    Li, Z., Yan, H., Ai, T., and Chen, J. (2004). Automated building generalization based on urban morphology and gestalt theory. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 18(5):513–534.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Maaten, L. v. d. and Hinton, G. (2008). Visualizing Data using t-SNE. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 9(Nov):2579–2605.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Mayer, H., Bartelsen, J., Hirschmüller, H., and Kuhn, A. (2012). Dense 3D reconstruction from wide baseline image sets. Outdoor and Large-Scale Real-World Scene Analysis, pages 285–304.

  • [17]

    Michaelsen, E., Iwaszczuk, D., Sirmacek, B., Hoegner, L., and Stilla, U. (2012). Gestalt grouping on façade textures from ir image sequences: comparing different production systemse. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science, 39(B3):303–308.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Müller, P., Wonka, P., Haegler, S., Ulmer, A., and Van Gool, L. (2006). Procedural Modeling of Buildings. In Acm Transactions on Graphics (Tog), volume 25, pages 614–623. ACM.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Nan, L., Sharf, A., Xie, K., Wong, T.-T., Deussen, O., Cohen-Or, D., and Chen, B. (2011). Conjoining Gestalt Rules for Abstraction of Architectural Drawings, volume 30. ACM.Google Scholar

  • [20]

    Pasewaldt, S., Semmo, A., Trapp, M., and Döllner, J. (2014). Multi-perspective 3D panoramas. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 28(10):2030–2051.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Schmittwilken, J., Kolbe, T. H., and Plümer, L. (2006). Der Gebäudekragen – Eine detaillierte Betrachtung des Übergangs von Gebäude und Gelände. Geoinformatik und Erdbeobachtung, 26:127–135.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Semmo, A., Trapp, M., Kyprianidis, J. E., and Döllner, J. (2012). Interactive Visualization of Generalized Virtual 3d City Models Using Level-of-Abstraction Transitions. In Computer Graphics Forum, volume 31, pages 885–894. Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar

  • [23]

    Smelik, R. M., Tutenel, T., Bidarra, R., and Benes, B. (2014). A Survey on Procedural Modelling for Virtual Worlds. In Computer Graphics Forum, volume 33, pages 31–50. Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Tutzauer, P., Becker, S., Fritsch, D., Niese, T., and Deussen, O. (2016). A Study of the Human Comprehension of Building Categories Based on Different 3D Building Representations. PFG Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation, pages 319–333.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    Vanegas, C. A., Aliaga, D. G., Wonka, P., Müller, P., Waddell, P., and Watson, B. (2010). Modelling the Appearance and Behaviour of Urban Spaces. In Computer Graphics Forum, volume 29, pages 25–42. Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Wonka, P., Wimmer, M., Sillion, F., and Ribarsky, W. (2003). Instant Architecture, volume 22. ACM.Google Scholar

About the article

Patrick Tutzauer

Patrick Tutzauer studied Geodesy and Geoinformatics at the University of Stuttgart. Since 2013 he works as a research associate and doctoral student at the Institute for Photogrammetry. His research focuses on 3D building reconstruction/modeling and Machine Learning techniques for urban data.

Susanne Becker

Susanne Becker is a research associate at the Institute for Photogrammetry, where she is responsible for research and involved in teaching in the field of Geoinformation, Pattern Recognition and Remote Sensing. Her research interests are 3D indoor reconstruction, 3D façade reconstruction and the semantic interpretation of urban data.

Norbert Haala

Norbert Haala is professor at the Institute for Photogrammetry, University of Stuttgart, where he is responsible for research and teaching in Photogrammetric Computer Vision and Image Processing. His main research interests cover automatic approaches for image‐based generation of high quality 3D data with a special focus on virtual city modeling.


Published Online: 2017-11-24

Published in Print: 2017-12-20


Funding Source: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Award identifier / Grant number: D01

We would like to thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for financial support within the project D01 of SFB/Transregio 161.


Citation Information: i-com, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 205–213, ISSN (Online) 2196-6826, ISSN (Print) 1618-162X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2017-0022.

Export Citation

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in