Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 28, Issue 3


The globalization of training in adolescent health and medicine: one size does not fit all

Karen Leslie
  • Corresponding author
  • Division of Adolescent Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Director, Centre for Faculty Development, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-06-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2016-5010


Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for ‘importing’ training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education.

Keywords: adolescent health; Canada; leadership; training programs


  • 1.

    World Health Organization. Health for the world’s adolescents: a second chance in the second decade, 2014. Available at: http://apps.who.int/adolescent/second-decade/. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 2.

    Brindis CD, Ozer EM, Handley M, Knopf DK, Millstein SG, et al. Improving adolescent health: an analysis and synthesis of health policy recommendations, full report. San Francisco: University California, National Adolescent Health Information Center, 1998. Available at: http://nahic.ucsf.edu/downloads/IAH_Full.pdf. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 3.

    World Health Organization. Transforming and scaling up health professionals’ education and training: WHO education guidelines, 2013. Available at: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/transf_scaling_hpet/en/. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 4.

    Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta Z, Cohen J, Crisp N, et al. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen the health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet 2010;376:1923–58.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Bravender T. The foundations of interdisciplinary fellowship training in adolescent medicine in the United States. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2016;28:263–7.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Robbins CL, Rickert VD. LEAH interdisciplinary training program. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2016;28:273–8.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Akgül S, Kanbur N, Derman O. A different training model for adolescent medicine: a PhD program in Turkey, where adolescent medicine is not currently a sub-specialty at this stage. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2016;28:269–72.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Wong AK. Culture in medical education: comparing a Thai and a Canadian residency programme. Med Educ 2011;45:1209–19.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Merriam Webster Dictionary. Culture. Available at: www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture 5d. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 10.

    Hofstede G. Cultural differences in teaching and learning. Int J Intercultur Relat 1986;10:301–20.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Ho M, Yu K, Hirsh D, Huang T, Yang PC. Does one size fit all? Building a framework for medical professionalism. Acad Med 2011;86:1407–14.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Jippes M, Majoor GD. Influence of national culture on the adoption of integrated and problem-based curricula in Europe. Med Educ 2008;42:279–85.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Hall P. Interprofessional teamwork: professional cultures as barriers. J Interprofessional Care 2005;19:188–96.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Available at: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/framework_action/en/. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 15.

    Oandasan I, Reeves S. Key elements for interprofessional education. Part 1: the learner, the educator and the learning context. J Interprofessional Care 2005;19(Suppl 1):21–38.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Wartman SA. Toward a virtuous cycle: the changing face of academic health centers. Acad Med 2008;83:797–9.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Kaufman DM. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: applying educational theory in practice. Br Med J 2003;326:213–6.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Traynor R, Eva KW. The evolving field of medical education research. Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2010;38:211–5.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Bordage B, Harris I. Making a difference in curriculum reform and decision-making processes. Med Educ 2011;45: 87–94.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Sherbino J, Frank J, editors. Educational design: a CanMEDS guide for the health professions. Available at: http://www.royalcollege.ca/portal/page/portal/rc/common/documents/canmeds/resources/publications/educational_design_preview_e.pdf. Accessed 16 February, 2015.

  • 21.

    Kouzes JM, Posner BZ. The leadership challenge, 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2007.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Hirsh DA, Ogur B, Thibault GE, Cox M. “Continuity” as an organizing principle for clinical education reform. N Engl J Med 2007;356:858–66.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Epstein RM. Assessment in medical education. N Engl J Med 2007;356:387–96.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Holmboe E, Ward D, Reznick R, Katsufrakis PJ, Leslie K, et al. Faculty development in assessment: the missing link in competency-based medical education. Acad Med 2011;86:460–7.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 25.

    Hafferty F. Beyond curriculum reform: confronting medicine’s hidden curriculum. Acad Med 1998;73:403–7.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Cruess SR, Cruess RL, Steinert Y. Role modeling- making the most of a powerful teaching strategy. Br Med J 2008;336:718–21.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Steinert Y. Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled. Acad Med 2011;86:409–11.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Karen Leslie, MD, MEd, FRCPC, Professor of Paediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Director, Centre for Faculty Development, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada, E-mail:

Received: 2015-01-04

Accepted: 2015-02-25

Published Online: 2015-06-26

Published in Print: 2016-08-01

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 279–283, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, ISSN (Print) 0334-0139, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2016-5010.

Export Citation

©2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in