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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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Volume 29, Issue 2


Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents on the island of Java, Indonesia

Mouhamad Bigwanto
  • ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phudthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand
  • Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, Limau II road, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Aroonsri Mongkolcharti
  • ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phudthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Karl Peltzer
  • ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phudthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Orapin Laosee
  • Corresponding author
  • ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phudthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-09-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0036



The Integrated Model of Change has successfully explained the behavior change process. Cigarette smoking is a social phenomenon, which needs to be understood for devising effective preventive strategies.


The study aims to apply the Integrated Model of Change to determine predictive factors of cigarette smoking behavior among school adolescents in Indonesia.


A school-based cross-sectional study was designed to collect data in Banten, Indonesia. A total of 698 students from eight high schools were recruited by multi-stage cluster sampling. The association between cigarette smoking and the independent variables was examined by multiple logistic regressions.


The majority of respondents (86.4%) were between the ages of 15 and 17 years (Mean=16.4 years; SD=1.01). Approximately half (48.8%) of the students ever tried a cigarette while 29.6% were current smokers. Curiosity was reported as the main reason for experimenting with cigarettes (32%). The significant factors regarding current cigarette smoking were attitude [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.68], social norms (AOR=12.80), self-efficacy (AOR=15.85), and accessibility (AOR=4.39).


The study revealed social influence and self-efficacy that were strongly associated with cigarette smoking can help authorities in guiding possible intervention programs for school adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents; cigarette smoking; high school; Indonesia


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About the article

Corresponding author: Orapin Laosee, ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, 999 Salaya, Phudthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom, 73170 Thailand, E-mail: orapin.lao@mahidol.ac.th

Received: 2015-04-24

Accepted: 2015-07-02

Published Online: 2015-09-11

Published in Print: 2017-04-01

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Volume 29, Issue 2, 20150036, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, ISSN (Print) 0334-0139, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0036.

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