Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

Online
ISSN
2191-0278
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 30, Issue 1

Issues

A systematic review on critical thinking in medical education

Zenobia C.Y. Chan
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Phone: +852 2766 6426, Fax: +852 2364 9663
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-04-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0117

Abstract

Background:

Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue.

Objective:

This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education.

Design:

Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012.

Results:

A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed.

Discussion:

While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students’ voices.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: critical thinking; learning outcomes; medication education; teacher development

References

  • 1.

    Scott JN, Markert RJ, Dunn, MM. Critical thinking: change during medical school and relationship to performance in clinical clerkships. Med Educ 1998;32:14–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    Jenicek M, Croskerry P, Hitchcock DL. Evidence and its uses in health care and research: the role of critical thinking. Med Sci Monit 2011;17:RA12–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Holden RJ. Lean Thinking in emergency departments: a critical review. Ann Emerg Med 2011;57:265–78.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Finn P. Critical thinking: knowledge and skills for evidence-based practice. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2011;42:69–72.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Browne MN, Keeley SM. Asking the right questions. a guide to critical thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1990.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Borglin G. Promoting critical thinking and academic writing skills in nurse education. Nurse Educ Today 2011;32:611–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Chang MJ, Chang YJ, Kuo SH, Yang YH, Chou FH. Relationships between critical thinking ability and nursing competence in clinical nurses. J Clin Nurs 2011;20:3224–32.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Rye KJ. Critical thinking in respiratory therapy. Respir Care 2011;56:364–5.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Jenkins SD. Cross-cultural perspectives on critical thinking. J Nurs Educ 2011;50:268–74.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Kowalczyk N. Review of teaching methods and critical thinking skills. Radiol Technol 2011;83:120–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Koontz NA, Gunderman RB. Radiation safety and medical education: development and integration of a dedicated educational module into a radiology clerkship, outcomes assessment, and survey of medical students’ perceptions. Acad Radiol 2012;19:491–7.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Amgad M, Shash E, Gaafar R. Cancer education for medical students in developing countries: where do we stand and how to improve? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2012;84:122–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Ray S, Udumyan R, Rajput-Ray M, Thompson B, Lodge KM, et al. Evaluation of a novel nutrition education intervention for medical students from across England. Br Med J Open 2012;2:e000417–7.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Brashers V, Owen J, Blackhall L, Erickson J, Peterson C. A program design for full integration and assessment of clinically relevant interprofessional education into the clinical/clerkship year for nursing and medical students. J Interprof Care 2012;26:242–4.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Mutto EM, Cantoni MN, Rabhansl MM, Villar MJ. A perspective of end-of-life care education in undergraduate medical and nursing students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. J Palliat Med 2012;15:93–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Chang YT, Hayter M, Wu SC. A systematic review and meta-ethnography of the qualitative literature: experiences of the menarche. J Clin Nurs 2010;19:447–60.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Glasziou P. Systematic reviews in health care: a practical guide. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Dluhy NM. Mapping knowledge in chronic illness. J Adv Nurs 1995;21:1051–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Schreiber R, Crooks D, Stern PN. Qualitative meta-analysis. In: Morse JM, editor. Completing a qualitative project: details and dialogue. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997:311–26.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 2009;6:e1000097–7.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Abdelmoneim I. Students perception of the various teaching methods used in the primary health care course in the Abha, College of Medicine. Saudi Med J 2003;24:1188–91.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Abraham R, Ramnarayan K, Kamath A. Validating the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT) in undergraduate physiology curriculum. BMC Med Educ 2008;8:1–17.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Abraham RR, Upadhya S, Torke S, Ramnarayan K. Student perspectives of assessment by TEMM model in physiology. Adv Physiol Educ 2005;29:94–7.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    Abraham RR, Upadhya S, Torke S, Ramnarayan K. Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students. Adv Physiol Educ 2004;28:102–4.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 25.

    Abraham RR, Kamath A, Upadhya S, Ramnarayan K. Learning approaches to physiology of undergraduates in an Indian medical school. Med Educ 2006;40:916–23.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26.

    Ahmed SA, Van DM. Student perception of peer critique of student-selected study components in a forensic medicine curriculum. J Med Biomed Sci 2010;11:22–30.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Alur P, Fatima K, Joseph R. Medical teaching websites: do they reflect the learning paradigm? Med Teach 2002;24:422–4.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Alweshahi Y, Harley D, Cook DA. Students’ perception of the characteristics of effective bedside teachers. Med Teach 2007;29:204–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Antepohl W, Domeij E, Forsberg P, Ludvigsson J. A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum. Med Educ 2003;37:155–162.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30.

    Basu Roy R, McMahon GT. Video-based cases disrupt deep critical thinking in problem-based learning. Med Educ 2012;46:426–35.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 31.

    Birgegård G, Lindquist U. Change in student attitudes to medical school after the introduction of problem-based learning in spite of low ratings. Med Educ 1998;32:46–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 32.

    Chamberlain NR, Stuart MK, Singh VK, Sargentini NJ. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students. Med Educ Online 2012;17. doi:10.3402/meo.v17i0.15943.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 33.

    Curet MJ, Mennin SP. The effect of longterm vs shortterm tutors on the quality of the tutorial process and student performance. Adv Health Sci Educ 2003;8:117–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34.

    D’Antoni AV, Zipp GP, Olson VG, Cahill TF. Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students? BMC Med Educ 2010;10:1–10.Google Scholar

  • 35.

    de Leng BA, Dolmans DHJM, Jöbsis R, Muijtjens AMM, van der Vleuten CPM. Exploration of an e-learning model to foster critical thinking on basic science concepts during work placements. Comput Educ 2009;53:1–13.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36.

    Elizondo-Montemayor L, Cid-García A, Pérez-Rodríguez BA, Alarcón-Fuentes G, Pérez-García I, et al. Outcome-based national profile of Mexico’s medical graduates. Med Teach 2007;29:691–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 37.

    Foster PJ. Clinical discussion groups: verbal participation and outcomes. J Med Educ 1981;56:831–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 38.

    Graffam B. Deriving better questions: creating better clinical instruction. Clin Teach 2008;5:98–102.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39.

    Hoag K, Lillie J, Hoppe R. Piloting case-based instruction in a didactic clinical immunology course. Clin Lab Sci 2005;18:213–20.Google Scholar

  • 40.

    Kamin C, O’Sullivan P, Deterding R, Younger M. A comparison of critical thinking in groups of third-year medical students in text, video, and virtual PBL case modalities. Acad Med 2003;78:204–11.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41.

    Kamin C, O’Sullivan P, Younger M, Deterding R. Measuring critical thinking in problem-based learning discourse. Teach Learn Med 2001;13:27–35.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 42.

    Kim S, Kolko BE, Greer TH. Web-based problem solving learning: third-year medical students’ participation in end-of-life care virtual clinic. Comput Hum Behav 2002;18:761–72.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43.

    Kumta SM, Tsang PL, Hung LK, Cheng JCY. Fostering critical thinking skills through a web-based tutorial programme for final year medical students – a randomized controlled study. J Educ Multimed Hypermed 2003;12:267–73.Google Scholar

  • 44.

    Lieberman SA, Trumble JM, Smith ER. The impact of structured student debates on critical thinking and informatics skills of second-year medical students. Acad Med 2000;75(10 Suppl):S84–6.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 45.

    Lindblom-Ylänne S, Lonka K, Leskinen E. On the predictive value of entry-level skills for successful studying in medical school. High Educ 1999;37:239–58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 46.

    Loy G, Gelula M, Vontver L. Teaching students to question. Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1752–6.Google Scholar

  • 47.

    Lumlertgul N, Kijpaisalratana N, Pityaratstian N, Wangsaturaka D. Cinemeducation: a pilot student project using movies to help students learn medical professionalism. Med Teach 2009;31:327–32.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 48.

    Mala-Maung, Abdullah A, Abas ZW. Appreciation of learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills in a problem-based learning medical curriculum. Med J Malaysia 2011;66:435–9.Google Scholar

  • 49.

    Manzoor I, Mukhtar F, Hashmi NR. Medical students’ perspective about role-plays as a teaching strategy in community medicine. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012;22:222–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 50.

    Miller DA, Sadler JZ, Mohl PC. Critical thinking in preclinical course examinations. Acad Med 1993;68:303–5.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 51.

    Ortiz N, Pedrogo Y, Bonet N. Integration of high-fidelity simulator in third-year paediatrics clerkship. Clin Teach 2011;8:105–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 52.

    Plack MM, Driscoll M, Marquez M, Greenberg L. Peer-facilitated virtual action learning: reflecting on critical incidents during a pediatric clerkship. Acad Pediatr 2010;10:146–52.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 53.

    Rehman R, Iqbal A, Rehan R. Do adults learn by experience; student’s perceptions and performance in neuro physiology lab course. Rawal Med J 2012;37:206–10.Google Scholar

  • 54.

    Saalu LC, Abraham AA, Aina WO. Quantitative evaluation of third year medical students’ perception and satisfaction from problem based learning in anatomy: a pilot study of the introduction of problem based learning into the traditional didactic medical curriculum in Nigeria. Educ Res Rev 2010;5:193–200.Google Scholar

  • 55.

    Scott JN, Markert RJ. Relationship between critical thinking skills and success in preclinical courses. Acad Med 1994;69:920–4.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 56.

    Shafi R, Quadri KHM, Ahmed W, Mahmud SN, Iqbal M. Experience with a theme-based integrated renal module for a second-year MBBS class. Adv Physiol Educ 2010;34:15–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 57.

    Taradi S, Taradi M. Expanding the traditional physiology class with asynchronous online discussions and collaborative projects. Adv Physiol Educ 2004;28:73–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 58.

    Torok HM, Torre D, Elnicki DM. Themes and characteristics of medical students’ self-identified clerkship learning goals: a quasi-statistical qualitative study. Acad Med 2009;84(Suppl 10):S58–62.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 59.

    Torre DM, Daley B, Stark-Schweitzer T, Siddartha S, Petkova J, et al. A qualitative evaluation of medical student learning with concept maps. Med Teach 2007;29:949–55.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 60.

    Wee LE, Koh GC, Lim VKG. Caring for underserved patients through neighborhood health screening: outcomes of a longitudinal, interprofessional, student-run home visit program in Singapore. Acad Med 2011;86:829–39.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 61.

    Thomas J, Harden A. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2008;8:45–54.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 62.

    Boyatzis RE. Transforming qualitative information: thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998.Google Scholar

  • 63.

    Vuchetich PJ, Hamilton WR, Ahmad SO, Makoid MC. Analyzing course objectives: assessing critical thinking in the pharmacy curriculum. J Allied Health 2006;35:e253–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 64.

    Bulson JA, Bulson T. Nursing process and critical thinking linked to disaster preparedness. J Emerg Nurs 2011;37:477–83.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 65.

    Marchigiano G, Eduljee N, Harvey K. Developing critical thinking skills from clinical assignments: a pilot study on nursing students’ self-reported perceptions. J Nurs Manag 2011;19:143–52.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 66.

    Hobaugh CF. Critical thinking skills: do we have any? Critical thinking skills of faculty teaching medical subjects in a military environment. US Army Med Dep J 2010;10–12:48–62.Google Scholar

  • 67.

    Helsdingen AS, van den Bosch K, van Gog T, van Merrienboer JJ. The effects of critical thinking instruction on training complex decision making. Hum Factors 2010;52:537–45.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 68.

    Hwang SY, Yen M, Lee BO, Huang MC, Tseng HF. A critical thinking disposition scale for nurses: short form. J Clin Nurs 2010;19:3171–6.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-12-04

Accepted: 2016-02-13

Published Online: 2016-04-18


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Volume 30, Issue 1, 20150117, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0117.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Abdolhussein Shakurnia and Maryam Baniasad
Strides in Development of Medical Education, 2018, Volume In Press, Number In Press

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in