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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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Volume 30, Issue 1


Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents

Adi Idris
  • Corresponding author
  • PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam, Phone: +6738987060
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nur B. Ghazali / Nadzirah M. Said / Michael Steele / David Koh
  • PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
  • Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore
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/ Nik A. Tuah
  • PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
  • Faculty of Public Health, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-04-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0125


Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a “predictive biomarker” for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13–17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

Keywords: adolescents; behaviour; saliva; smoking; testosterone


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About the article

Received: 2015-12-14

Accepted: 2016-02-17

Published Online: 2016-04-09

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, Volume 30, Issue 1, 20150125, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0125.

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