The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with many physical, social, and psychological changes. In addition, adolescents also have to deal with structural changes. An example of one such structural change is the transition from school to university or to other vocational establishments. Structural changes can also entail changes in overall framework conditions and daily life patterns and thus also in dietary habits and physical activity levels. The aim of the present paper was to draw attention to the research deficit in this area with the help of the results of our analyses. The results show that significant changes take place as a consequence of the transition from school to a vocational establishment. However, our analyses could not identify the exact catalysts and the time framework of these changes. In this respect, further research is urgently warranted.