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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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2191-0278
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Relationship between childhood bullying and addictive and anti-social behaviors among adults in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional national study

Maha Almuneef
  • Corresponding author
  • National Family Safety Program, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • King Saud Bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), P. O. Box 22490, Mail code 3202, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia, Phone: +96611-8040141, Mobile: +96650-5461281
  • King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hassan N. Saleheen
  • National Family Safety Program, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nathalie ElChoueiry
  • National Family Safety Program, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Majid A. Al-Eissa
  • National Family Safety Program, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-08-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0052

Abstract

Background

Bullying is a widespread public health problem among youth with potentially far reaching negative implications.

Objective

To determine the prevalence of childhood bullying and its association with addictive and anti-social behaviors among adults.

Subjects

Adults (n = 10,156) aged ≥18 years were invited to participate.

Methods

A cross-sectional, national study utilizing Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was conducted in Saudi Arabia (SA). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for bullying in relation to the outcome.

Results

Participant’s mean age was 34.3 ± 11.3 years and 52% were male. Thirty-nine percent of the participants reported being bullied. Significant gender differences were found in terms of prevalence of different types of bullying. Men reported higher prevalence of physical (40% vs. 33%, p < 0.01) and sexual (19% vs. 10%, p < 0.01) types of bullying. In contrast, women tend to report higher prevalence of psychological (16% vs. 9%, p < 0.01) and social (14% vs. 10%, p < 0.01) types of bullying. Bullying victims were 1.8 (95% CI 1.6–2.1) times more likely to smoke, 2.3 (95% CI 1.9–2.7) times more likely to drink alcohol, 2.9 (95% CI 2.4–3.4) times more likely to use drugs, 2.1 (95% CI 1.8–2.4) times more likely to have ever had out of wedlock sexual relations, and 2.5 (95% CI 2.1–3.0) times more likely to have suicidal thoughts compared to those who were not bullied.

Conclusion

Childhood bullying increases the chances of risky behaviors among adults in SA. Prevention of bullying should be in the national agenda of the Ministry of Education.

Keywords: adult; alcohol; bullying; drugs; Saudi Arabia

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About the article

Received: 2017-03-27

Accepted: 2017-06-08

Published Online: 2017-08-24


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170052, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0052.

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