Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

Online
ISSN
2191-0278
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print

Issues

Exploration of brushing behavior among university students in Iran: a qualitative research

Mohtasham Ghaffari
  • Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sakineh Rakhshanderou
  • Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ali Ramezankhani / Mehdi Noroozi
  • Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Bahram Armoon
  • Corresponding author
  • Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-01-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0115

Abstract

Background

Currently, it is estimated that 40% of the Iranian population is less than 20 years old, and in the academic year of 2011–2012 about 4 million students of that age were educated. The general assessment of the outcomes of oral health programs and investigating determinants is substantial for developing future plans of oral health. This study was done with the aim of exploring brushing behavior among university students of Iran to specify and understand the important determinants of oral health behavior.

Methods

A qualitative research method was used. This study was conducted between August and November 2016 in Shahid Beheshti University. Maximum variation sampling was used among university attendees and 44 students with more than 2 years of study duration were selected to be included in the research. Semi-structured interviews were employed for data gathering. All of the recorded interviews and notes were accurately evaluated and data analysis was performed based on the content analysis.

Results

As a result of the interview analysis 16 main categories emerged: Religious Beliefs, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers, Habitation, Salience of Behavior, Education, Subjective Norms, Peer Pressure, Observational Learning, Knowledge, Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Outcome Expectation, Skills, Perceived Self-efficacy, and Perceived Behavioral Control. Codes of sub-theme and theme were identified in the study.

Conclusion

This present study provides additional evidence with respect to the religious beliefs and the impact of religious instructions in brushing among students. Salience of brushing behavior has been described as one of the structures in an integrated behavioral model. Despite earlier studies suggesting, that peer pressure only plays a role on children’s brushing behavior, our study showed that peer pressure is effective on adults as well.

Keywords: brushing behavior; exploration; Iran; student

References

  • [1]

    Patrick DL, Lee RS, Nucci M, Grembowski D, Jolles CZ, Milgrom P. Reducing oral health disparities: a focus on social and cultural determinants. BMC Oral Health. 2006;6(1):1.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Michael Glick DD, Kleinman DV, Vujicic M, Watt RG, Weyant RJ. A common definition can bring stakeholders together to advocate for the importance of oral health; to influence and shape parameters of care, health policies, research, education, and reimbursement models; and to shape the future of our profession,” wrote 2016. Available from: http://www.wdrb.com/story/34122699/new-definition-of-oral-health-announced.

  • [3]

    Buunk-Werkhoven YA. World white teeth: determinants and promotion of oral hygiene behavior in diverse contexts. University of Groningen; 2010.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Frese W, Nowak A, Royston L, Tanya Mathew B, Casamassimo P, Wright R, et al. ediatric Oral Health.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Kamalikhah T, Khalighinejad N, Rahmati‐Najarkolaei F. Dental flossing behaviour and its determinants among students in a suburb area of Tehran–Iran: using Transtheoretical Model. Int J Dent Hyg. 2017;15(2):106–12.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Gill P, Stewart K, Chetcuti D, Chestnutt I. Children’s understanding of and motivations for toothbrushing: a qualitative study. Int J Dent Hyg. 2011;9(1):79–86.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Buunk‐Werkhoven YA, Burrekers SY, Jongboer A, Quant DF, van Maanen‐Schakel NW. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior in the Dominican Republic. Int J Dent. 2011;61(6):328–33.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Agel M. Psychosocial determinants of oral health behaviour in adolescents. Evid Based Dent. 2016;17(3):72.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Fallahi A, Nematshahrbabaki B. Determinants of dental health behaviors among Iranian students. Health Educ Health Promot. 2015;3(1):15–24.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Buunk‐Werkhoven YA, Dijkstra A, van der Schans CP. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior: a study based on the theory of planned behavior. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011;39(3):250–9.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Naghibi Sistani MM, Yazdani R, Virtanen J, Pakdaman A, Murtomaa H. Determinants of oral health: does oral health literacy matter? ISRN dent. 2013;2013:249591.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Buunk‐Werkhoven YA, Dijkstra A, Bink P, van Zanten S, van der Schans CP. Determinants and promotion of oral hygiene behaviour in the Caribbean and Nepal. Int Dent J. 2011;61(5):267–73.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Buunk-Werkhoven YA, Dijkstra A, van der Schans CP, Jaso ME, Acevedo S, Estellano GP. Evaluación y promoción de la actitud hacia la higiene oral en pacientes de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Católica del Uruguay. Actas Odontológicas. 2016;5(2):13–20.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    van der Schans CP, van der Meer Brig-Gen R. Promoting oral hygiene behavior in recruits in the Dutch army. Mil Med. 2009;174(9):971.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Buunk-Werkhoven YA. Determinants and promotion of oral hygiene behavior in diverse contexts. Netherland: University of Groningen; 2010.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Elo S, Kyngas H. The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62(1):107–15.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Sirois M, Darby M, Tolle S. Understanding Muslim patients: cross‐cultural dental hygiene care. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013;11(2):105–14.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Maltby J, Paterson K, Day L, Jones C, Kinnear H, Buchanan H. Social ranking effects on tooth‐brushing behaviour. Br J Health Psychol. 2016;21(2):374–88.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Kasmaei P, Amin Shokravi F, Hidarnia A, Hajizadeh E, Atrkar-Roushan Z, Karimzadeh Shirazi K, et al. Brushing behavior among young adolescents: does perceived severity matter. BMC public health. 2014;14(1):8.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Campanaro M, Huebner CE, Davis BE. Facilitators and barriers to twice daily tooth brushing among children with special health care needs. Spec Care Dentist. 2014;34(4):185–92.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Benadof D. Tooth brushing habit formation in children of Mexican immigrant families in Pennsylvania, US: a qualitative study [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Pittsburgh; 2015.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Ganss C, Schlueter N, Preiss S, Klimek J. Tooth brushing habits in uninstructed adults – frequency, technique, duration and force. Clin Oral Investig. 2008;13(2):203.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Glanz Karen RB, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Murphey C. Oral health experiences of pregnant and parenting adolescent women: a qualitative descriptive study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(6):768–75.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Dumitrescu AL, Duţă C, Dogaru CB, Manolescu B. Predicting undergraduates’ intentions to improve oral health behaviors: the importance of self–identity–a pilot study. J Am Dent Hyg Assoc. 2013;87(4):224–34.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Albandar JM, Buischi YA, Mayer MP, Axelsson P. Long-term effect of two preventive programs on the incidence of plaque and gingivitis in adolescents. J Periodontol. 1994;65(6):605–10.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Vangipuram S, Jha A, Raju R, Bashyam M. Effectiveness of peer group and conventional method (dentist) of oral health education programme among 12–15 year old school children-a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(5):ZC125–9.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Binkley CJ, Johnson KW, Abadi M, Thompson K, Shamblen SR, Young L, et al. Improving the oral health of residents with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an oral health strategy and pilot study. Eval Program Plann. 2014;47:54–63.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Huebner CE, Riedy CA. Behavioral determinants of brushing young children’s teeth: implications for anticipatory guidance. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32(1):48–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Buglar ME, White KM, Robinson NG. The role of self-efficacy in dental patients’ brushing and flossing: testing an extended Health Belief Model. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;78(2):269–72.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Brein DJ, Fleenor TJ Jr, Kim SW, Krupat E. Using the theory of planned behavior to identify predictors of oral hygiene: a collection of unique behaviors. J Periodontol. 2016; 87:312–9.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-07-10

Accepted: 2017-09-10

Published Online: 2018-01-25


Conflict of interests: All authors have no conflicts of interest to be declared.

Funding: This study did not receive any financial support.

Authors contributions: Study design: BA. Interviews and data analysis: MGh and SR. Drafting the manuscript: MGh and BA. Critical revision of the manuscript: AR.

Informed consent: All participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Compliance with ethical standards: All procedures, including the informed consent process, were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170115, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0115.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Mohtasham Ghaffari, Sakineh Rakhshanderou, Ali Safari-Moradabadi, and Sohila Torabi
Oral Diseases, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in