Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print


Adaptation and validation of the disruptive behaviour disorders teacher rating scale as a screening tool for early detection of disruptive behaviour disorders in schools in a lower-middle income setting

Olawunmi Olagundoye
  • Corresponding author
  • Lagos State Health Service Commission, General Hospital Lagos, Department of Family Medicine, 1-3 Broad Street, Lagos Island, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Alex Igundunasse / Morenike Alugo
Published Online: 2018-01-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0134



Despite the need to curb the menace resulting from the negative trajectory of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD) in societies of the world today, there is yet a dearth of locally standardised tools for the early detection of these disorders in Nigeria. This study was aimed at standardising the DBD teacher rating scale (DBD-TRS) to be culturally specific using teachers’ ratings of their students.


To establish norm scores for the three categories of DBD on the DBD-TRS, to evaluate the reliability, validity, predictive power, sensitivity and specificity of DBD-TRS items for identifying DBD symptoms amongst children/adolescents between the ages of 4 and 16 years.


A cross-sectional survey of the five divisions of Lagos was conducted using multi-stage sampling technique. A randomly selected sample of teachers from a selection of regular schools across the five divisions of Lagos retrospectively rated systematically selected samples of their students in absentia; by referring to the names in their class registers for the recently concluded school session. The DBD-TRS and the previously validated strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) were used for the ratings.


Ratings were completed for 1508 children/adolescents by 197 teachers from 30 regular schools. The norm scores for the three categories of DBD were determined by gender, age, and grade/class. Satisfactory psychometric properties were established for the DBD rating scale. All DBD items had high negative predictive power and positive predictive power, high specificity, and low false positive rates. However, ADHD items had lower PPP (0.23–0.55).


The DBD rating scale demonstrated sufficient technical merits to be used as a preliminary tool for identifying children that may require further clinical evaluation by mental health experts for behavioural disorders.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; conduct disorders; oppositional defiant disorder; predictive values; screening; secondary prevention


  • [1]

    Lahey B, Loeber R. Framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In: Routh DK, editor. Disruptive behavior disorders in childhood. New York/London: Plenum Press; 1994. p. 139–80.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Kovacs M, Devlin B. Internalizing disorders in childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1998;39:47–63.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Bongers IL, Koot HM, Ende J, Verhulst FC. Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Dev. 2004;75:1523–37.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Dopfner M, Adrian K, Hanisch C. Treatment and management of conduct disorders in children and adolescents. In: Felthous A, Sab H, editor(s). The international handbook on psychopathic disorders and the law. New York: Wiley; 2007. p. 417–48. Available from: www.books.google.com. [Last accessed on 2016 July 09].Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Achenbach TM. The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: a factor-analytic study. Psychol Monogr. 1966;80:1–37.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Serbin LA, Schwartzman AE, Moskowitz DS, Ledingham JE. Aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children in adolescence: into the next generation. In: Pepler DJ, Rubin KH, editors. The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1991. p. 55–70.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    The INSERM Collective Expert Reports (Internet). Paris: Institut national de la santé et de la recherché medicale; 2000. (Updated 2005). Available from: www.nih.gov/books. [Last accessed on 2015 Aug 14].Google Scholar

  • [8]

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed-Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Taylor E. Syndromes of attention deficit and overactivity. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L, editors. Child and adolescent psychiatry: modern approaches. 3rd ed. Osney Mead: Oxford; 1994. p. 285–307.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Swanson JM, Sergeant JA, Taylor E, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Jensen PS, Cantwell DP. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. [Internet]. [USA]: PubMed; 1998. (Updated 1998 February). Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9482319. [Last accessed on 2015 Aug 14].

  • [11]

    Steiner H. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(10S):122S–39S.Google Scholar

  • [12]

    Scott, S. Aggressive behaviour in childhood. Clin Rev. 1998;31b:202–6.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Kazdin AT. Conduct disorder in childhood and adolescent. London: Sage; 1995.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    Spencer Q, Scott S. Conduct disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 1996;9:273–7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Mash EJ, Barkley RA. Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press; 1996.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Shapiro JP, Dorman RL, William BM, Welker CJ, Clough JB. Development and factor analysis of a measure of youth attitudes towards guns and violence. J Clin Child Psychol. 1997;26:311–20.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Todd MF. Perceptions of family functioning between children with behavior difficulties and their primary caregiver. Graduate Thesis, University of South Florida 2003. Available from: www.scholarcommons.usf.edu. [Last accessed on 2016 July 9].Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Wolraich ML, Lambert EW, Baumgaertel A, Garcia-Tornel S, Feurer ID, Bickman L, et al. Teachers’ screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: comparing multinational samples on teacher ratings of ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2003;31:445–55.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    American Academy of Paediatrics. Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2004;105:1158–70.Google Scholar

  • [20]

    Ofovwe CE, Ofovwe GE, Meyer A. The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among school-aged children in Benin City, Nigeria. J Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2006;18(1):1–5.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Meyer A, Eilertsen DE, Sundet JM, Tshifularo JG, Sagvolden T. Cross cultural similarities in ADHD-like behaviour amongst South African primary school children. S Afr J Psychol. 2004;34:123–39.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Greenslade KE, Milich R. Teacher rating of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992;31(2):210–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Loona MI. Psychosocial functioning of children with disruptive behaviour disorders. A Ph.D Dissertation submitted to Dr. Muhammad Ajmal National Institute of Psychology, Centre of Excellence, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 2011.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Goodman R. The extended version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a guide to child psychiatric caseness and consequent burden. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999;40:791–801.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Akpa OM, Afolabi RF, Fowobaje KR. Psychometric properties and confirmatory structure of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Nigeria. Int J Stat Appl. 2016;6(3):145–55.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed-Revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.Google Scholar

  • [27]

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-08-02

Accepted: 2017-09-08

Published Online: 2018-01-13


Ethics approval and consent to participate: Ethical clearance to conduct this study was obtained from the Health Research and Ethics Committee of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Reference number: LREC/06/10/717.

Permission was obtained from the authorities of the schools and informed consent was also obtained from teachers who participated voluntarily in the study. Children and adolescents did not participate in the study; child assent was therefore not indicated. There were no risks whatsoever to the participants and confidentiality was ensured.

Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170134, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0134.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in