Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print


Improving the self-efficacy of teachers in schools: results of health promotion program

Jamileh Farokhzadian
  • Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Amirreza Sabzi / Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki
  • Corresponding author
  • Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-06-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0170



In order to effectively facilitate behavior change, it is essential to conduct health promotion programs on self-efficacy. Given the importance of the role of teachers in fostering the next generation, it appears that the promotion of self-efficacy in them can greatly contribute to the health of the community. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a health promotion training workshop on self-efficacy for health practices and also, on general self-efficacy of teachers in schools.


This study was a quasi-experimental study, in which 120 teachers were selected by random sampling and randomly divided into two equal intervention and control groups (60 in each group). A health promotion training workshop was conducted for the intervention group. Data were collected by a three-section questionnaire (demographic, self-rated ability for health practices scale and general self-efficacy) before and 1 month after the training intervention.


The self-efficacy scores for health practices and general self-efficacy were not significantly different between the intervention and control groups before the intervention (p > 0.05). However, participants in the intervention group reported higher scores on both the self-efficacy for health practices (t = 4.05, p = 0.001) and general self-efficacy (t = 2.92, p = 0.004) compared to those in the control group one month after the intervention.


The health promotion training program had improving effects on the self-efficacy for health practices and general self-efficacy. This program was potentially a valid community health nursing intervention that can be presented and evaluated in various community settings.

Keywords: health practices; health promoting behaviors; self-efficacy; teachers


  • [1]

    Asgari F, Aghajani H, Haghazali M, Heidarian H. Non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance in Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2009;38(1):119–22.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Yarahmadi S, Etemad K, Hazaveh AM, Azhang N. Urbanization and non-communicable risk factors in the capital city of 6 big provinces of iran. Iran J Public Health. 2013;42(Suppl 1):113.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Marks R, Allegrante JP, Kate L. A review and synthesis of research evidence for self-efficacy-enhancing interventions for reducing chronic disability: implications for health education practice (part I). Health Promot Pract. 2005;6(1):37–43.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Mangolian Shahrbabaki P, Nouhi E, Kazemi M, Ahmadi F. The sliding context of health: the challenges faced by patients with heart failure from the perspective of patients, healthcare providers and family members.. J Clin Nurs.. 2017 Nov;26(21-22):3597–609.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Sohng KY. Effects of a self‐management course for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Adv Nurs. 2003;42(5):479–86.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    World Health Organization. Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies: a foundation document to guide capacity development of health educators. 2012.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Shahrbabaki PM, Nouhi E, Kazemi M, Ahmadi F. Family Support as a Reliable Resource for Coping in Patients with Heart Failure.. Acta Med Mediterr. 2016;32():873–8.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Marks R, Allegrante JP. A review and synthesis of research evidence for self-efficacy-enhancing interventions for reducing chronic disability: implications for health education practice (part II). Health Promot Pract. 2005;6(2):148–56.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Becker H, Stuifbergen A, Oh HS, Hall S. Self-rated abilities for health practices: a health self-efficacy measure. Health Values. 1993;17(5):42–50.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Holloway A, Watson HE. Role of self-efficacy and behaviour change. Int J Nurs Pract. 2002;8(2):106–15.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Alpar ŞE, Şenturan L, Karabacak Ü, Sabuncu N. Change in the health promoting lifestyle behaviour of Turkish University nursing students from beginning to end of nurse training. Nurse Educ Pract. 2008;8(6):382–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Geok SK, Yusof A, Lam SK, Japar S, Leong OS, Fauzee MS. Physical activity and health-promoting lifestyle of student nurses in Malaysia. J Biosci Med. 2015;3(03):78.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Viig NG, Wold B. Facilitating teachers’ participation in school‐based health promotion – a qualitative study. Scand J Educ Res. 2005;49(1):83–109.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Charkazi A, Koochaki GM, Shahnazi H, Ekrami Z, Bahador E. Lifestyle of teachers working in Gorgan City in 2009. Health Syst Res. 2010;6(3):522–31 .Google Scholar

  • [15]

    Azizzadeh Forouzi M, Shahmohammadipour P, Heidarzadeh A, Dehghan L, Taheri Z. The relationship between the quality of learning experience and academic burnout and achievement among students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Med Educ. 2016;16:84–93.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Abdi J, Eftekhar H, Mahmoodi M, Shojaeizade D, Sadeghi R. Lifestyle of the employees working in Hamadan public sectors: application of the trans-theoretical model. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(2):e25269.PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Ghaffari Nejad A, Pouya F. Self promoting behaviors among teachers in Kerman. J Guilan Uni Med Sci. 2002;11(43):1–9.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    Nilsaz M, Tavassoli E, Mazaheri M, Sohrabi F, Khezli M, Ghazanfari Z. Study of healthpromoting behaviors and life style among students of Dezful universities. J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2012;24:16.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Heidari F, Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi S, Vanaki Z. The effect of a supportive health promotion program on the lifestyle of premenopause teachers. FEYZ. 2013;17(1):14–24.Google Scholar

  • [20]

    Shahrbabaki PM, Nouhi E, Kazemi M, Ahmadi F. Defective support network: a major obstacle to coping for patients with heart failure: a qualitative study. Glob Health Action. 2016;9(1):30767.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Golmakani N, Naghibi F, Moharari F, Esmaily H. Health promoting life style and its related factors in female adolescents. J Midwifery Reprod Health. 2013;1(1):42–9.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Bektas M, Malak AT, Yumer AS, Korkmaz M, Özkan A. Turkish university students’ nutritional habits regarding cancer prevention and healthy lifestyles. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(5):1347–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Azadbakht M, Taheri Tnjany P, Garmaroudi G, Bookmaker R, Shojaei D. Validity and Reliability of Self Efficacy of Health Practice Scale (SRAHPS) in Iranian Elderly. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 1970;22(2):490–8.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Sherer M, Maddux JE, Mercandante B, Prentice-Dunn S, Jacobs B, Rogers RW. The self-efficacy scale: construction and validation. Psychol Rep. 1982;51(2):663–71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Barati BS. The simple and multiple relationships between self-effectiveness, self discovery and self-esteem with academic performance of students in the third years of the new system in Ahvaz [MSc thesis]: Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 1997.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Jones EG, Renger R, Kang Y. Self‐efficacy for health‐related behaviors among deaf adults. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(2):185–92.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Karimi M, Eshrati B. The effect of health promotion model-based training on promoting students’ physical activity. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2012;16(3):192–200.Google Scholar

  • [28]

    Dacey M, Arnstein F, Kennedy MA, Wolfe J, Phillips EM. The impact of lifestyle medicine continuing education on provider knowledge, attitudes, and counseling behaviors. Med Teach. 2013;35(5):e1149–56.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Hashimoto S, Munakata T, Okutomi Y. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study on the exercise behavior and life stress of participants in a community health promotion program for elderly and middle-aged people. Int J Sport Health Sci. 2006;4(Special_Issue_2_2006):555–69.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Ayaz S, Tezcan S, Akıncı F. Health promotion behavior of students at the nursing college. Cumhuriyet Univ J Nurs School. 2005;9:26–34.Google Scholar

  • [31]

    Merakou K, Kourea-Kremastinou J. Peer education in HIV prevention: an evaluation in schools. Eur J Pub Health. 2006;16(2):128–32.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32]

    Moeini B, Dashti S, Teymoori P, Kafamy V, Mosali A, Sharifi M, et al. Health promoting behaviors among high school students in Hamadan. J Res. 2015;13(3):49–57.Google Scholar

  • [33]

    Brouwers A, Tomic W. A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teach Teach Educ. 2000;16(2):239–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Robinson-Whelen S, Hughes RB, Taylor HB, Colvard M, Mastel-Smith B, Nosek MA. Improving the health and health behaviors of women aging with physical disabilities: a peer-led health promotion program. Womens Health issues. 2006;16(6):334–45.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [35]

    Boehm S, Coleman-Burns P, Schlenk EA, Funnell MM, Parzuchowski J, Powell IJ. Prostate cancer in African American men: increasing knowledge and self-efficacy. J Community Health Nurs. 1995;12(3):161–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [36]

    Chenary R, Noroozi A, Tavafian SS, Firoozabadi MS. Effective factors on health-promoting lifestyle among Iranian chemical veterans in 2014 based on health promotion model: a path analysis. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(8):e33467.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [37]

    Mahmoodabad M, Saeed S, Mehri A. The relationship of health behavior with self-esteem and self-efficacy in students of Yazd Shahid Sadooghi University of Medical Sciences (2005). ‎Strides Dev Med Educ. 2007;3(2):111–7.Google Scholar

  • [38]

    Yarcheski A, Mahon NE, Yarcheski TJ, Cannella BL. A meta‐analysis of predictors of positive health practices. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2004;36(2):102–8.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [39]

    Silva MC, Lautert L. The sense of self-efficacy in maintaining health promoting behaviors in older adults. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2010;44(1):61–7.Google Scholar

  • [40]

    Swackhamer LE, Koellner K, Basile C, Kimbrough D. Increasing the self-efficacy of inservice teachers through content knowledge. Teach Educ Q. 2009;36(2):63–78.Google Scholar

  • [41]

    DiIorio C, Shafer PO, Letz R, Henry TR, Schomer DL, Yeager K, et al. Behavioral, social, and affective factors associated with self-efficacy for self-management among people with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;9(1):158–63.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [42]

    Fox MC. Social support, health behaviors, and academic success in college students. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University; 2011.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-10-01

Accepted: 2017-11-26

Published Online: 2018-06-12

Funding: This study received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170170, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0170.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in