World Health Organization. Media Centre. Tobacco: Fact sheet, 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
World Health Organization. Global health observatory (GHO) data. Prevalence of tobacco smoking. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/tobacco/use/en/. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
World Health Organization. WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000–2025. Available at :http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/reportontrendstobaccosmoking/en/. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44616/1/9789240687813_eng.pdf. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking & Tobacco Use. Fact Sheet, 2017. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking – 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Available at: https://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/full-report.pdf. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, Rostron B, Thun M, Anderson RN, et al. 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:341–50.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization. Health effects of smoking among young people. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/research/youth/health_effects/en/.. Accessed on October 12, 2017.
Meader N, King K, Moe-Byrne T, Wright K, Graham H, Petticrew M, et al. Systematic review on the clustering and co-occurrence of multiple risk behaviours. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:657.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
van Nieuwenhuijzen M, Junger M, Velderman MK, Wiefferink KH, Paulussen TW, Hox J, et al. Clustering of health-compromising bheavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population. Prev Med. 2009;48:572–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Connell CM, Gilreath TD, Hansen NB. A multiprocess latent class analysis of the co-occurrence of substance use and sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009;70(6):943–51.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Geckova A, van Dijk JP, van Ittersum-Gritter T, Groothoff JW, Post D. Determinants of adolescents’ smoking behaviour: a literature review. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2002;10(3):79–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Arora V, Gupta N, Gupta P, Bansal M, Thakar S, Nagpal I. Cigarette smoking behavior and associated psychosocial determinants among school going adolescents in Panchkula, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent. 2017;15:27–31.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85380/1/9789241505871_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on October 13, 2017.
Al-Zalabani A, Kasim K. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents’ cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:17.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Al Ghobain MO, Al Moamary MS, Al Shehri SN, Al-Hajjaj MS. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16–18 years boys and girls in Saudi Arabia. Ann Thorac Med. 2011;6(3):137–40.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Al-Damegh SA, Saleh MA, Al-Alfi MA, Al-Hoqail IA. Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:215–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Heshmat R, Qorbani M, Safiri S, Eslami-Shahr Babaki A, Matin N, Motamed-Gorji N, et al. Association of passive and active smoking with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN IV study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(2):e012694.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Barros VV, Kozasa EH, Formagini TD, Pereira LH, Ronzani TM. Smokers show lower levels of psychological well-being and mindfulness than non-smokers. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135377.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Alsubaie AS, Omer EO. Physical activity behavior predictors, reasons and barriers among male adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: evidence for obesogenic environment. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2015;9(4):400–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Alsubaie AS. The importance of investigating adolescents health-related behaviours: an opportunity for improving public health. Int J Dev Res. 2014;4:2014–8.Google Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2018-01-25
Conflict of interest statement: The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.