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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

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Dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in early adolescents in India

Sandeep Kumar
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Public Health Dentistry, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, India, Phone: 08827424626
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Astha Chauhan / Arunoday Kumar / Siddharth Kumar
  • Department of Oral medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow, India
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anjali Gupta / Sayak Roy / Simran C. Kumari
Published Online: 2018-07-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0200



Dental fluorosis has a negative impact on the facial esthetics of adolescents and is a worldwide oral health concern.


To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors for dental fluorosis in early adolescents in India.


This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 800 adolescent school children selected from the Jhabua and Dhar districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. The children were in the of 12–15-year age group. A total of eight schools from both Jhabua and Dhar districts were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire collected information on demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and various risk factors for dental fluorosis. Water samples were collected from each zone and sent to a laboratory for water fluoride estimation. Dental fluorosis was assessed using the Dean index. Chi-squared (χ2) and logistic regression analysis were performed.


The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 40.5% in early adolescents. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 45% in the Jhabua district and 36% in the Dhar district. The water fluoride content was found to be the strongest predictor for dental fluorosis followed by the method of water storage.


Dental fluorosis affects a large number of adolescents in both the Jhabua and Dhar districts of Madhya Pradesh. Effective policies focusing on oral health education and prevention of dental fluorosis need to be drafted.

Keywords: adolescents; cross-sectional; dental fluorosis; risk factors


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About the article

aPresent address: Flat No 3B, Samvridhi Tower, Near Medical Chowk, Bariatu, RIMS, Ranchi, India

Received: 2017-11-15

Accepted: 2018-02-19

Published Online: 2018-07-05

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have reviewed and approved the manuscript and there is no conflict of interest amongst the authors.

Funding: There was no financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations or companies while this study was conducted that might influence the results. There was no funding accepted from any organizations or any companies that might influence the results.

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170200, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0200.

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