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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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2191-0278
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Factors associated with time between using a drug and injection initiation among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran

Mehdi Noroozi
  • Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Mohammad Hassan Farhadi
  • Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Bahram Armoon
  • Corresponding author
  • Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Ali Farhoudian
  • Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari
  • Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Nursing Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Asaad Sharhani / Salah Eddin Karimi
  • Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Mohammad Sayadnasiri
  • Psychosis Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Omid Rezaei
  • Psychosis Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Hesam Ghiasvand
  • Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Published Online: 2018-05-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0204

Abstract

Background

The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users.

Methods

Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014. Trained interviewers collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing and drug-related risk behaviors over the last month prior to interview using a structured questionnaire. Our main outcome variable was first illicit drug use to first injection (TIJ). TIJ was calculated by subtracting age at first drug injection from age of first illicit drug use.

Results

Overall, the average age at first drug use and injection were 21.4 [standard deviation (SD 5.6)] and 22.8 (SD 8.9), respectively. The average duration of injection was 6.0 (SD 4.6) years. Overall, the mean of TIJ for participants was 1.4 (IQR = 2, 4) years. Age of first injecting drug use negatively correlated with TIJ (R2 = 0.219, p = 0.001). Education level and socioeconomic status (SES), and negatively correlated with TIJ.

Conclusion

Some demographic factors and drug use characteristics including educational level, SES, knowledge of HIV status, age of initiating drug use, being a poly drug user and using methamphetamine were predictors of the time to transition.

Keywords: injection initiation; Kermanshah; people who inject drugs

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About the article

Received: 2017-11-26

Accepted: 2017-12-17

Published Online: 2018-05-17


Compliance with Ethical Standards:

Conflict of interests: All other authors had no conflicts of interest to be declared.

Funding source: This study funded by Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Office (SAPTO) of Mental Health, Social Health and Addiction Department (MeHSHAD) of Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Ethical approval: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Authors’ contributions: MF and MN helped in study concept and design. MN and BA helped in analysis and interpretation of data. MN and SK drafted the manuscript. ZJ, ASH, HQ, AB, SA, MN and FR helped in critical revision of the manuscript.


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20170204, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0204.

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