Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

Online
ISSN
2191-0278
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print

Issues

Resilience among secondary school students in South-Western Nigeria; association with abuse and neglect

Oluwapelumi Adeyera
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Phone: +2348068997573
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Obioma Uchendu
  • Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Eme Owoaje
  • Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-08-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0013

Abstract

Introduction

Resilience, which aids coping and adjustment, prevents the development of mental health issues for individuals exposed to adversities. Abuse and neglect are some of the adversities that affect the health of adolescents. This study examined the relationship between abuse, neglect and resilience of adolescents.

Methods

The study adopted a cross-sectional design among 522 secondary school adolescents using interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Information on socio-demographics, abuse, neglect and resilience were elicited. Associations were tested with significance set at 5%.

Results

The mean age of respondents was 15.9 ± 1.5, 301 (57.7%) were females and 144 (27.6%) were from polygamous homes. Two hundred and forty-three (46.4%) had high resilience, 141 (27.0%) moderate resilience and 138 (26.6%) had low resilience. Psychological, physical and sexual abuse were reported among 238 (45.7%), 168 (32.1%) and 45 (8.6%) adolescents, respectively, while 71 (13.6%) and 134 (25.8%) experienced psychological and physical neglect, respectively. Adolescents who experienced physical abuse and sexual abuse were about 2 and 2.5 times less likely, respectively, to have high resilience than those who did not experience physical and sexual abuse.

Conclusion

Abuse and neglect negatively influence resilience of adolescents. Interventions targeted at reducing abuse and neglect should be incorporated in adolescent health protocols to increase their resilience.

Keywords: abuse; child maltreatment; neglect; resilience

References

  • [1]

    World Health Organisation (WHO). Child Maltreatment [Internet]. Health topics. 2017. p. 1. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/child_abuse/en/.

  • [2]

    Child Welfare Information Gateway. Child Maltreatment 2015: Summary of Key Findings [Internet]. Washington, D.C:; 2017. Available from: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/canstats.pdf.

  • [3]

    Onyemachi UT. Children, status and the law in Nigeria. African Res Rev. 2010;4(3a):378–98.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Nigeria: Act No. 26 of 2003, Child’s Rights Act [Internet]. 2003. Available from: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5568201f4.html.

  • [5]

    UNICEF Nigeria. Release of the findings of the Nigeria Violence Against Children Survey [Internet]. 2015. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/media_9588.html.

  • [6]

    National Population Commission of Nigeria, UNICEF Nigeria, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Violence against children in Nigeria: findings from a national survey, 2014, Abuja; 2016.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Nnam MU, Njemanze V. Culture as a determinant of child abuse in Nigeria: a sociological standpoint macpherson [Internet]. Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ikwo; 2016. Available from: http://www.academicexcellencesociety.com/culture_as_a_determinant_of_child_abuse_in_nigeria.pdf.

  • [8]

    Anda RF, Chapman DP, Felitti VJ, Edwards V, Williamson DF, Croft JB, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(1):37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Hillis BSD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women: a retrospective cohort study. Fam Plan Perspect. 2001;33(5):206–11.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH, Anda RF. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Prev Med (Baltim). 2003;37:268–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, et al. The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse Negl. 2004;28:771–84.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF. Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics. 2003;111(3):564–72.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Adejuwon GA, Balogun SK. Resiliency among inner-city youths from selected areas of Ibadan City, Nigeria: intervening protective factors in response to risk and disadvantage. J Soc Sci. 2004;9(3):177–84.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    Rutter M. Resilience concepts and findings: implications for family therapy. J Fam Ther. 1999;21:119–44.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Windle G, Bennett KM, Noyes J. A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:8.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Fergusson D, Horwood L. Resilience to childhood adversity: results of a 21 year study. In: Luthar SS, ed. Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities. England: Cambridge University Press; 2003, p. 130–55.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    Richardson GE. The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. J Clin Psychol. 2002;58(3):307–21.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Mampane MR. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire. South African J Educ. 2014;34(4):1–11.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Tusaie K, Puskar K, Sereika SM. A predictive and moderating model of psychosocial resilience in adolescents. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(1):54–60.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Collishaw S, Pickles A, Messer J, Rutter M, Shearer C, Maughan B. Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: evidence from a community sample. Child Abuse Negl. 2007;31(3):211–29.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Walsh W, Dawson J, Mattingly M. How are we measuring resilience following childhood maltreatment? Is the research adequate and consistent? What is the impact on research, practice, and policy? Trauma Violence Abuse. 2010;11(1):27–41.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Jaffee SR, Gallop R. Social, emotional, and academic competence among children who have had contact with child protective services: prevalence and stability estimates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2007;46(6):757–65.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Sirikantraporn S (Jill). Levels of acculturation and resilience among Southeast Asian adolescents who have and have not witnessed domestic violence. [Internet]. Vol. 71, Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2011. Available from: https://login.ezproxy.net.ucf.edu/login?auth=shibb&url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-99040-300&site=eds-live&scope=site.

  • [24]

    Salawu MM, Owoaje E. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking among urban youths in Oyo state, South Western Nigeria. J Public Heal Informatics. 2014;6(1):2579.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    Data and statistics: prevalence of individual adverse childhood experiences [Internet]. Atlanta, GA; 2010. Available from: www.cdc.gov/ace/prevalence.htm.

  • [26]

    Wagnild GM, Young HM. Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. J Nurs Meas [Internet]. 1993;1(2):165–78. Available from: https://www.resiliencescale.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Wagnild-Young-psychom-R.pdf.

  • [27]

    Losoi H, Turunen S, Wäljas M, Helminen M, Öhman J, Julkunen J, et al. Psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the resilience scale and its short version. Psychol Community Heal [Internet]. 2013;2(1):1–10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar

  • [29]

    Kehinde O, Stephen O, Matthew A. Sexual risk behaviours among young people with adverse childhood experiences in Ibadan, Nigeria. Greener J Med Sci. 2012;2:70–6.Google Scholar

  • [30]

    Ramiro LS, Madrid BJ, Brown DW. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and health-risk behaviors among adults in a developing country setting. Child Abus Negl. 2010;34(11):842–55.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Nishizawa S. Child abuse on the rise: exploring the societal factors [Internet]. 2017. Available from: https://www.nippon.com/en/currents/d00260/.

  • [32]

    Boden JM, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Experience of sexual abuse in childhood and abortion in adolescence and early adulthood. Child Abuse Negl [Internet]. 2009;33(12):870–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    Chukwuorji J, Ajaero C. Resilience in Igbo rural community adolescents. J Soc Sci. 2014;10(3):86–96.Google Scholar

  • [34]

    Iyokho O. Psychosocial resilience and risky HIV behaviors among black MSM. Latvia: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2015.Google Scholar

  • [35]

    Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Jiang L. Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89401.PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [36]

    Scoloveno R. An investigation of a theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience in middle adolescents. NJ, USA: The State University of New Jersey; 2013.Google Scholar

  • [37]

    Campbell-Sills L, Cohan SL, Stein MB. Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(4):585–99.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38]

    Aronen ET, Kurkela SA. The predictors of competence in an adolescent sample: a 15-year follow-up study. Nord J Psychiatry [Internet]. 1998;52(3):203–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39]

    Vilete L, Figueira I, Andreoli SB, Ribeiro W, Quintana MI, Mari JDJ, et al. Resilience to trauma in the two largest cities of Brazil: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:257.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-01-12

Accepted: 2018-03-11

Published Online: 2018-08-25


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180013, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0013.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in