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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

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Cannabis and amphetamine use and socio-ecological (proximal and distal) factors among school-going adolescents in four countries in the Caribbean and four countries in South America

Karl Peltzer
  • Department of Research Innovation and Development, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Supa Pengpid
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Research Innovation and Development, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa
  • ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand
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  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2019-04-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0030


The study aimed to assess the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use and socio-ecological (proximal and distal) factors among adolescents in eight countries of the Americas. We analysed cross-sectional survey data from 44,904 adolescents [mean age 14.6 years, standard deviation (SD) = 1.4] from Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2011–2013. The prevalence of the past month’s cannabis use was 8.3% and lifetime amphetamine use was 3.0%. In adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression analysis older age, male gender, personal attributes (anxiety, suicidal ideation, current tobacco use, current alcohol use, school truancy and sexual risk behaviour) and environmental stressors (having been in a physical fight, hunger, being bullied) were positively and parental support and peer support were negatively associated with the past month’s cannabis and/or lifetime amphetamine use. Measures to prevent and control cannabis and amphetamine use in this adolescent population should include personal attributes (mental health, substance use, school truancy and sexual risk behaviour), environmental stressors and parental and peer support.

Keywords: adolescents; amphetamine use; cannabis use; Caribbean; South America


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About the article

Received: 2018-01-31

Accepted: 2018-05-27

Published Online: 2019-04-11

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180030, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0030.

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