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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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Violence depicted in advertisements on LinkNYC kiosks in Manhattan, New York City

Corey Hannah Basch
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Public Health, William Paterson University, University Hall 366, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA, Phone: +(973)-720-2603
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/ Michael LeBlanc / Danna Ethan
  • Department of Health Sciences at Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, NY, USA
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/ Charles E. Basch
  • Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
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Published Online: 2018-09-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0033


Violence has a profound negative impact on the lives of youth. Exposure to violence may be a precursor to violence later in life. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to estimate the prevalence of violence depicted in advertisements on LinkNYC kiosks in Manhattan, NYC, and (2) to determine if violent advertising varied based on the median annual income of the zip code in which the kiosk was located. This cross-sectional study involved observations of advertisements on 100 LinkNYC kiosks that were selected randomly from 500 that were listed in Manhattan, NYC. The frequency and type of violent depictions were recorded. The kiosks were grouped into quartiles of median annual income (1) $40,782 and below (2) $40,783 to $86,801 (3) $86,802 to $105,500 and (4) $105,501 and above. Of the 2025 total advertisements observed, including duplicates, a total of 190 (9.4%) included violent content. These 190 advertisements were observed on 68 of the 100 kiosks and included 339 depictions of violence. The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 71.6%) of violent depictions were for movies. There were significant differences in the frequency of violent content based on income quartiles, χ2 (3, n = 190) = 19.00, p < 0.001. The highest two income quartiles had fewer violent advertisements than would be expected and the lowest quartile had more violent advertisements than expected. Symbols of violence were the most frequent type of violence portrayed observed in 85% of the violent advertisements observed (n = 161). Weapons, crime and fighting were observed in 5–11% of the advertisements. Our study suggests that greater alignment between the city’s aims to improve community health and reduce health disparities and advertising policies on LinkNYC warrants consideration.

Keywords: LinkNYC kiosk; New York City; violence advertisements


About the article

Received: 2018-02-07

Accepted: 2018-05-27

Published Online: 2018-09-26

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180033, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0033.

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