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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

CiteScore 2018: 0.79

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Self-efficacy of osteoporosis preventive behaviors and its predictors in Iranian adolescents

Fatemeh Ghelichkhani
  • Iran University of Medical Sciences, Midwifery Department, Imam Sajjad Hospital , Shahriar, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Mojgan Mirghafourvand
  • Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Midwifery Department, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Elahe Bahrami-Vazir
  • Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Midwifery Department, Faculty of Nursing and midwifery, Ilam, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Esmaeil Vali
  • Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Students Research Committee, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Saveh, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Azam Mohammadi
  • Corresponding author
  • Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Midwifery Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Saveh, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
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Published Online: 2018-10-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0038



Almost all the bone mass in females is accumulated during adolescence and especially in the years immediately following menstruation. Self-efficacy plays an important role in moderating the relationship between knowledge and behavior. This study aimed to determine the self-efficacy of osteoporosis preventive behaviors and its predictors in female high school students.


This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 330 female high school students in Saveh, Iran during 2016–2017. A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) and the Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES). A general linear model was used to determine the self-efficacy predictors of osteoporosis preventive behaviors.


The mean [standard deviation (SD)] of the total OKT score was 11.08 (4.08) of attainable range from 0 to 32. The mean (SD) of the total OSES score was 121.97 (37.36) of attainable range from 0 to 200. The mean (SD) of the exercise and calcium subscales of OSES were 58.39 (22.56) and 63.57 (21.02), respectively. There were significant relationships between the total OKT score with the total OSES score (r = 0.16, p = 0.003) and its subscales, including exercise (r = 0.16, p = 0.002) and calcium (r = 0.11, p = 0.03) scores. According to the adjusted general linear model, the variables of economic status, educational level and osteoporosis knowledge were predictors of the self-efficacy in the studied students.


Findings suggested that most of the students had moderate levels of knowledge and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis preventive behaviors; therefore, improving the knowledge and self-efficacy of this group can play a significant role in promoting their health.

Keywords: adolescent; knowledge; osteoporosis; predictor; self-efficacy


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About the article

Received: 2018-02-14

Accepted: 2018-03-27

Published Online: 2018-10-20

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions: Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Azam Mohammadi and Fatemeh Ghelichkhani: study concept, and design and acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data and drafting of the manuscript. Esmail Vali and Fatemeh Ghelichkhani: acquisition of data. Mojgan Mirghafourvand and Elahe Bahrami-Vazir and Fatemeh Ghelichkhani: critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. Mojgan Mirghafourvand: study supervision.

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180038, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0038.

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