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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

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2191-0278
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Major food groups contributing to sodium intake in school-attending adolescents

Rafael Lavourinha Pinto
  • Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Programa de Pós graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Bárbara da Silva Nalin de Souza
  • Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Programa de Pós graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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/ Rosangela Alves Pereira
  • Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Nutrição Josué de Castro, Departamento de Nutrição Social Aplicada, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
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/ Rosely Sichieri
  • Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Medicina Social, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
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/ Edna Massae Yokoo
  • Corresponding author
  • Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Departamento de Epidemiologia e Bioestatística, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Published Online: 2019-01-23 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0057

Abstract

Background

Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for developing systemic arterial hypertension. Increased blood pressure during childhood increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Assessing sodium intake across different eating places is important, as the meals offered in different places can influence dietary quality.

Objective

This study aimed to assess the contribution of different food groups to the mean of sodium intake of school-attending adolescents in the city of Niterói, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Subjects

A total of 347 public school students aged between 10 and 18 years participated in the study.

Methods

Food consumption was based on two 24-h dietary recalls. The reported items were grouped into 31 food groups and the percentage of contribution of each food group to total mean sodium intake was estimated. Sodium intake according to eating place was also estimated.

Results

The food groups mostly contributing to total sodium intake were rice, beans, savory biscuits, breads, beef, poultry, processed meat, filled cookies, pasta and potatoes. The highest sodium intake within the food groups occurred at home, except for savory biscuits and pizza, which showed a higher sodium intake percentage at school. Savory biscuits were the third-most consumed item contributing to the total sodium intake and were the main source of sodium when consumed at school (48.9%).

Conclusion

Most sodium intake stemmed from ultra-processed food consumed at school. Therefore, actions to promote healthy eating habits within the school environment are necessary.

Keywords: adolescent; food consumption; sodium

References

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    World Health Organization [internet]. Guideline: sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 (cited 2107 Mar 23). Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77985/1/9789241504836_eng.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2017.

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    Moshfegh AJ, Rhodes DG, Baer DJ, Murayi T, Clemens JC, Rumpler WV, et al. The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Methods reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:324–32.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

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    Barufaldi LA, Abreu GA, Veiga GV, Sichieri R, Kuschnir MC, Cunha DB, et al . Programa para registro de recordatório alimentar de 24 horas: aplicação no Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2016;19(2):464–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

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    Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Household Budget Survey (HBS), 2008–2009. Table of Nutritional Composition of Food Consumed in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2011. Avaiable from: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/pof/2008_2009_composicao_nutricional/pofcomposicao.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2017.

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    Brazil. Ministry of Health of Brazil. Secretariat of Health Care. Primary Health Care Department. Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian population / Ministry of Health of Brazil, Secretariat of Health Care, Primary Health Care Department; Brasília: Ministry of Health of Brazil, 2014.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-03-14

Accepted: 2018-06-19

Published Online: 2019-01-23


Funding Source: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior

Award identifier / Grant number: 0147847383452237

Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Funder Id: 10.13039/501100002322, Grant Number: 0147847383452237.


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180057, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0057.

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