Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

Online
ISSN
2191-0278
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print

Issues

Association between a vegetarian diet and emotional symptoms: a cross-sectional study among adolescents in four developing countries

Alejandra Santivañez-Romani
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Alameda San Marcos cda. 2 - Urb. Los Cedros de Villa, Chorrillos, Lima 09, Peru
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Valeria Carbajal-Vega / Reneé Pereyra-Elías
Published Online: 2018-10-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0130

Abstract

Background

Studies assessing the association between vegetarianism and mental health have found divergent results. Evidence from adolescents in developing countries is scarce.

Objective

To evaluate the association between a vegetarian diet and emotional symptoms in 15-year-old adolescents from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

Methods

A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the Young Lives cohort study was used. The exposure variable was the self-report of being a vegetarian (yes or no). The outcome was the level of emotional symptoms, numerically evaluated using the score obtained in the subscale “Emotional Symptoms” of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We calculated crude and adjusted coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), using generalized linear models of the Gaussian family, considering each sentinel site as a cluster. The analysis was stratified by country. Additionally, we made a global analysis including the four countries.

Results

A total of 3484 adolescents were analyzed. The overall prevalence of vegetarianism was 4.4%, but it varied between countries (from 0.4% in Vietnam to 11.5% in India). The average emotional symptoms score was 3.5 [standard deviation (SD) 2.3] points. The scores were not statistically different between vegetarians and non-vegetarians (p > 0.05). In the adjusted analysis, in Vietnam, vegetarians had lower emotional symptoms scores on average than non-vegetarians [β: −1.79; 95% CI: −3.05 to −0.55]. No differences were found neither in the other countries nor in the overall sample.

Conclusion

There was no association between a vegetarian diet and emotional symptoms in the analyzed adolescents of four developing countries.

Keywords: adolescents; affective symptoms; developing countries; vegetarian diet

References

  • [1]

    World Health Organization. Mental Health: a state of well-being [Internet]. 2014. [cited 6 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/.

  • [2]

    Barra E, Cerna R, Kramm D, Véliz V. Problemas de salud, estrés, afrontamiento, depresión y apoyo social en adolescentes [Health Problems, Stress, Coping, Depression and Social Support in Adolescents]. Ter psicol. 2006;24(1):55–61.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Chatterji S, Lee S, Ormel J, et al. The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009;18(1):23–33.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Vargas H, Tovar H, Valverde J. Prevalencia y factores asociados con el episodio depresivo en adolescentes de Lima Metropolitana y Callao [Prevalence and associated factors with depressive episode in teenagers from Lima Metropolitana and Callao]. Rev Peru Epidemiol. 2010;14(2):91–8.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    World Health Organization. Child and adolescent: mental health. [Internet] [Cited 6 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/maternal-child/child_adolescent/en/.

  • [6]

    Roberts RE, Roberts CR, Xing Y. Rates of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among adolescents in a large metropolitan area. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(11):959–67.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Pilis W, Stec K, Zych M, Pilis A. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2014;65(1):9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian diets and weight reduction: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;31:109–16.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Agrawal S, Millett CJ, Dhillon PK, Subramanian SV, Ebrahim S. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population. Nutr J. 2014;13:89.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Aune D, Ursin G, Veierod MB. Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2277–87.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(17):3640–9.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Wang F, Zheng J, Yang B, Jiang J, Fu Y, Li D. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(10):e002408.PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, Li G, Wahlqvist ML, Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233–40.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Michalak J, Zhang XC, Jacobi F. Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from a representative community survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:67.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Beezhold B, Radnitz C, Rinne A, DiMatteo J. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores. Nutr Neurosci. 2015;18(7):289–96.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Northstone K, Joinson C, Emmett P. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in a UK cohort of men and women: a longitudinal study. Public Health Nutr. 2017:21(5):831–7.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    University of Oxford. Young lives [Internet]. Oxford: OX; 2016. [Cited 6 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.younglives.org.uk/content/about-us.

  • [18]

    Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scoring the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for age 4–17 or 18+ [Internet]. London: Youth in Mind. [Cited 3 October 2017]. Available from: http://www.sdqinfo.com/py/sdqinfo/b3.py?language=Englishqz(UK).

  • [19]

    Lai JS, Hiles S, Bisquera A, Hure AJ, McEvoy M, Attia J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(1):181–97.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(12):1970–80.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    Baş M, Karabudak E, Kiziltan G. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents. Appetite. 2005;44(3):309–15.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Hibbeln JR, Northstone K, Evans J, Golding J. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men. J Affect Disord. 2018;225:13–7.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Henry CJ. Dietary intake research in Asian children: significance and challenges. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015;61:S189–91.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    Figuié M. Vegetable consumption behavior in Vietnam. Project #00005600 funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. Available at: https://agritrop.cirad.fr/517071/1/docu ment_517071.pdf.

  • [25]

    Ribeiro SM, Malmstrom TK, Morley JE, Miller DK. Fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and depressive symptoms in the African American Health (AAH) study. J Affect Disord. 2017;220:31–7.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26]

    McMartin SE, Jacka FN, Colman I. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: evidence from five waves of a national survey of Canadians. Prev Med. 2013;56(3–4):225–30.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Null G, Pennesi L, Feldman M. Nutrition and lifestyle intervention on mood and neurological disorders. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017;22(1):68–74.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Beezhold BL, Johnston CS. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2012;11:9.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Mullee A, Vermeire L, Vanaelst B, Mullie P, Deriemaeker P, Leenaert T, et al. Vegetarianism and meat consumption: a comparison of attitudes and beliefs between vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous subjects in Belgium. Appetite. 2017;114:299–305.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4(5):1005–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fan J, Sveen L, Bennett H, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(5):767–76.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [32]

    De Backer CJ, Hudders L. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake. Ecol Food Nutr. 2014;53(6):639–57.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    Kehoe SH, Krishnaveni GV, Veena SR, Guntupalli AM, Margetts BM, Fall CH, et al. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian Children. Matern Child Nutr. 2014;10(1):145–58.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Chuang SY, Chiu TH, Lee CY, Liu TT, Tsao CK, Hsiung CA, et al. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study. J Hypertens. 2016;34(11):2164–71.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-06-17

Accepted: 2018-08-06

Published Online: 2018-10-20


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180130, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0130.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in