Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel


CiteScore 2018: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.350
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.476

Online
ISSN
2191-0278
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print

Issues

Occupational agricultural injuries among the preadolescent workers of West Bengal, India

Banibrata Das
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Physiology, South Calcutta Girls’ College, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700025, India, Phone: 91 8961568057 (M); 91 9433895285 (M), Fax: 91 33 24542265
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Somnath Gangopadhyay
  • Occupational Ergonomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University College Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-12-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0178

Abstract

Introduction

Agricultural injuries are an important factor in mortality and morbidity for populations of preadolescents globally. Working preadolescents in agricultural sector are exposed to occupational risks and injury in India.

Objective

This study mainly assesses the nature of injuries among the preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

Methods

The survey was done by collecting the data on agricultural injuries from the Hooghly district of West Bengal. The injury data for 7 years between years 2010 and 2016 were collected by conducting a survey and personal interviews with the victims. The questionnaire-based approach was used for data collection information on the injury characteristics.

Results

The agricultural injury incident rate was 8.99 (male) and 7.89 (female) per 1000 workers/year. The leading causes of farm injuries were hand tools (65.7%). The most frequently involved tools were spades and sickles. The main cause of hand tool injuries was repetitive work, which lead to fatigue and slippage of hand tools from the hand. The study indicated that preadolescent workers are highly prone to injuries in their occupation, mostly affecting the toes (27.8% and 26.3%) and fingers (24.8% and 25%) in both male and female preadolescents, which consequently affected their health, productivity and work performance.

Conclusion

This study concludes that (1) agricultural injuries affecting different body parts such as toes, fingers, feet and ankles. (2) Occurrence of injuries was much higher among males than females. (3) Hand tools accounted for the majority of injuries followed by farm machinery. (4) Cut injuries are the main ones followed by lacerations, abrasions, sprains and contusions.

Keywords: agriculture; farm machineries; hand tools; injuries; preadolescent

References

  • [1]

    Tiwari PS, Gite LP, Dubey AK, Kot LS. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact. J Agri Saf Health. 2002;8:95–111.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    Pickett W, Brison R, Berg R, Zentner J, Linneman J, Marlenga B. Pediatric farm injuries involving non-working children injured by a farm work hazard: five priorities for primary prevention. Inj Prev. 2005;11:6–11.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    International Labour Office. IPEC. Tackling hazardous Child labour in agriculture: Guidance on policy and practice. p. 2. Geneva, International Labor Organization; 2006.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Hagemann F, Diallo Y, Etienne A, Mehran F. Global preadolescent labour trends 2000 to 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization – SIMPOC; 2006.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Pinzon-Rondon AM, Koblinsky SA, Hofferth SL, Pinzon-Florez C E, Briceno L. Work-related injuries among preadolescent street-laborers in Latin America: prevalence and predictors. Am J Pub Health. 2009;26(3):235–43.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Gangopadhyay S, Das B, Das T, Ghoshal G. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2005;11(3):315–22.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Gangopadhyay S, Das B, Das T, Ghoshal G. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among pre-adolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India. Ergon SA. 2006;18:14–21.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Litchfield MH. Agricultural work related injury and ill health and the economic cost. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 1999;6:175–82.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    International Labour Office. A future without Child labour. International Labour Conference 90th session. Geneva: International Labor Organization; 2010.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Estacio EV, Marks DF. Child labour and the International Labour Organization’s Convention 182: a critical perspective. J Health Psycho. 2005;10:475–84.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Ide LS, Parker DL. Hazardous preadolescent labor: lead and neurocognitive development. Pub Health Rep. 2005;120:607–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Nag PK, Sebastian NC, Malvankar MG. Occupational workload of Indian agricultural workers. Ergon. 1980;23:91–102.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Das B, Ghosh T, Gangopadhyay S. Child work in agriculture in West Bengal, India: assessment of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems. J Occup Health. 2013;55:244–58.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Lewandowski B, Szymańska J. Agriculture-related severe craniofacial injuries in rural Preadolescent and adolescents. Ann Agri Env Med. 2008;15:59–62.Google Scholar

  • [15]

    Onwuachi-Saunders C, Forjuoh SN, West P, Brooks C. Child death reviews: a gold mine for injury prevention and control. Inj Prev. 1999;5:276–9.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Fassa AG, Facchini LA, Dall’agnol MM, Christiani D. Preadolescent labor and health: problems and perspectives. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000;6:55–62.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Rivara FP. Fatal and non-fatal farm injuries to Preadolescent and adolescents in the United States, 1990–3. Inj Prev. 1997;3:190–4.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Nag PK, Nag A. Drudgery, injuries and injuries in Indian agriculture. Ind Health. 2004;42:149–62.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Nag PK, Nag A, Ashtekar SP. Thermal limits of men in moderate to heavy work in tropical farming. Ind Health. 2007;45:107–17.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Duffey RB, Saull JW. Errors and Accident Rates: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, ICONE-8, Baltimore, MD (Mexico: American Society of Mechanical Engineers); 2000.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Gangopadhyay S, Ghosh T, Das T, Ghoshal G, Das B. Impact of injuries on work performance among the surgical blacksmiths of West Bengal. Int J Inj Contr Saf Prom. 2007;14:85–92.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    Das B. Agricultural work-related injuries among the farmers of West Bengal, India. Int J Inj Contr Saf Prom. 2014;21:205–15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    NIOSH. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths, Injuries, and Illnesses of Young Workers. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 2003. DHHS (NIOSH) publication 2003–128.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Marlenga B, Berg RL, Linneman JG, Brison RJ, Pickett W. Changing the child labor laws for agriculture: impact on injury. Am J Pub Health. 2007;97:276–82.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    Das B, Gangopadhyay S. An Ergonomic evaluation of spading activity among the child labours in agricultural sector in West Bengal, India. In: Proceedings of the HWWE, S. Gangopadhyay, editor, Ergonomics for Everyone, Chapter X Ergonomics in Intervention and Design; 2009 Dec 17–19; Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta; 2010, pp. 235–46.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Kumar A, Singh JK, Mohan D, Varghese M. Farm hand tools injuries: a case study from northern India. Saf Sci. 2008;46:54–65.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Xiang H, Wang Z, Stallones L, Keefe TJ, Huang X, Fu X. Agricultural work related injuries among farmers in Hubei, People’s Republic of China. Am J Pub Health. 2000;90:1269–76.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Sanderson WT, Madsen MD, Rautiainen R, Kelly KM, Zwerling C, Taylor CD, et al. Tractors overturn concerns in Iowa: perspectives from the Keokuk county rural health study. J Agri Saf Health. 2006;12:71–81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Dimich-Ward H, Guernsey JR, Pickett W, Rennie D, Hartling L, Brison RJ. Gender differences in the occurrence of farm-related injuries. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:52–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [30]

    Das B, Gangopadhyay S. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of West Bengal, India. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2015;27:NP1669–82.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [31]

    Kuye R, Donham K, Marquez S, Sanderson W, Fuortes L, Rautiainen R, et al. Agricultural health in the Gambia II: a systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture. Ann Agri Env Med. 2006;13:119–28.Google Scholar

  • [32]

    Singh R, Sharma AK, Jain S, Sharma SC, Magu NK. Wheat thresher agricultural injuries: a by-product of mechanized farming. Asia Pac J Pub Health. 2005;17:36–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33]

    Solomon C. Accidental injuries in agriculture in the UK. Occup Med. 2002;52:461–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Kulkarni ML, Anees S. Snake venom poisoning: experience with 633 cases. Ind Pediat. 1994;31:1239–43.Google Scholar

  • [35]

    Pandey DP. Epidemiology of snakebites based on field survey in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts, Nepal. J Med Toxicol. 2007;3:164–8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36]

    Prasanna KG, Dewangan KN. Agricultural accidents in north eastern region of India. Saf Sci. 2009;47(2):199–205.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-06-16

Accepted: 2018-09-04

Published Online: 2018-12-10


Conflict of interest statement: None declared.


Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180178, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0178.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Lamisa Ashraf, Priyanka Agrawal, Aminur Rahman, Shumona Sharmin Salam, and Qingfeng Li
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, Volume 16, Number 18, Page 3366

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in