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International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board: Birch, Diana ML / Blum, Robert W. / Greydanus, MD, Dr. HC (Athens), Donald E. / Hardoff, Daniel / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / de Paul, Joaquin / Rydelius, Per-Anders / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Silber, Tomas J. / Towns, Susan / Urkin, Jacob / Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni / Zeltzer, Lonnie / Tenenbaum, Ariel

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Effect of education based on protection motivation theory on adolescents’ reproductive health self-care: a randomized controlled trial

Marjan Havaei / Leili Salehi / Mahnaz Akbari-Kamrani
  • School of Medical Sciences, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
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/ Mitra Rahimzadeh
  • Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sara Esmaelzadeh-Saeieh
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Medical Sciences, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
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Published Online: 2019-02-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0195



Adolescents should be empowered to improve their reproductive and sexual health needs. The present study aimed to investigate effects of protection motivation theory-based education on student girls’ reproductive and sexual health self-care.


This randomized controlled trial was conducted in parallel on 90 female students living in dormitories of the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. The data collection lasted from January 2017 to May 2018. Convenience sampling was performed, and samples were put into intervention and control groups by block randomization. The intervention group received six educational sessions based on the protection motivation theory(PMT). The data collection tool of this research consisted of the protection motivation theory and reproductive health self-care questionnaires.


There was no significant difference between control and intervention groups in demographic characteristics. The results of the repeated measures test indicated that the reproductive health self-care variable had a significant change (p = 0.000), and there was a significant difference between groups (p = 0.000). The total score of the Protection Motivation Theory Questionnaire was not changed over time (p = 0.54) and there was no significant difference between groups (p = 0.51) according to results of the repeated measures test.


According to effects of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory, it is suggested to utilize this model as an educational framework for adolescents’ reproductive and sexual health by healthcare providers, schools and universities as well as holding periodic courses educating adolescents within short-term intervals in order to achieve the higher sustainability of the educational results.

Keywords: adolescents; protection motivation theory; reproductive health self-care


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About the article

Received: 2018-08-25

Accepted: 2018-09-06

Published Online: 2019-02-12

Ethical considerations: The present study was conducted with the approval of the research deputy of the Alborz University of Medical Sciences and also the Ethics Committee of university with the code of Abzums.Rec.1396.164 and registration in the clinical trial system with the code of IRCT20150119020719N7. Before the study, the research objectives and the confidentiality of all the information were explained to participants. All participants signed informed consent forms and the researcher sought to protect all financial and intellectual rights of the research samples.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Citation Information: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20180195, ISSN (Online) 2191-0278, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0195.

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