Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering

Ed. by de Lasa, Hugo / Xu, Charles Chunbao

6 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.623
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.761

CiteScore 2016: 0.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.224
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.297

Online
ISSN
1542-6580
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Catalytic Activity of Sulfated Iron-Tin Mixed Oxide for Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil: Effects of Iron Precursor, Calcination Temperature and Sulfate Concentration

Kamchai Nuithitikul / Worawoot Prasitturattanachai / Jumras Limtrakul
Published Online: 2011-10-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-6580.2763

The activities of sulfated iron-tin mixed oxide catalysts for esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil were investigated. The iron-tin mixed oxides were prepared from co-precipitation method when the iron content was fixed at 10 mol%. Types of iron precursor, sulfate concentration and calcination temperature were varied. The optimum study in the esterification reaction variables (stirring speed, reaction time, catalyst loading, methanol/oil molar ratio and reaction temperature) was also conducted with the best sulfated iron-tin mixed oxide catalyst. The findings show that iron sulfate is the best precursor. The activities of sulfated iron-tin mixed oxide catalysts increase with sulfate concentration. The optimum calcination temperature to prepare sulfated iron-tin mixed oxides is 450°C. The addition of iron oxide into sulfated tin oxide improves the stability of the catalyst during the reusability process. Therefore, sulfated iron-tin mixed oxide is a better candidate than sulfated tin oxide for esterification of free fatty acids. For the esterification study, the optimum reaction conditions are: the stirring speed of 250 rpm, the catalyst loading of 4.5 wt% of the oil, the methanol/oil molar ratio of 14.2, the reaction temperature of 80°C and the reaction time of 3 h.

Keywords: biodiesel; sulfated tin oxide; iron oxide; free fatty acid

About the article

Published Online: 2011-10-04


Citation Information: International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, ISSN (Online) 1542-6580, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-6580.2763.

Export Citation

©2012 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in