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International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering

Ed. by de Lasa, Hugo / Xu, Charles Chunbao

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Surface Separation Equilibria and Dynamics of Cationic Dye Loaded onto Citric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide Treated Eggshells

Elisha A. Adeniji
  • Department of Industrial Chemistry, College of Natural & Applied Sciences, Wesley University, 3 Ondo-Ife Road, Ondo, Nigeria
  • Department of Chemistry, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Temitope O. Abodunrin
  • Department of Industrial Chemistry, College of Natural & Applied Sciences, Wesley University, 3 Ondo-Ife Road, Ondo, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Temitope A. Ogunnupebi
  • Department of Industrial Chemistry, College of Natural & Applied Sciences, Wesley University, 3 Ondo-Ife Road, Ondo, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Babatunde A. Koiki / Abimbola M. Olatunde / Martins O. OmorogieORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9697-2960
Published Online: 2018-11-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijcre-2018-0029


This research enthusiastically highlights the bio-adsorption of methylene blue (MB) by local, poultry, NaOH and citric acid modified ubiquitous eggshell (LES, NLES, CLES, PES, NPES and CPES) adsorbents. The microstructures of these adsorbents indicated that they had some surface functional moieties that were responsible for the adsorption of MB. The Langmuir isotherm and PSO model best fit the experiment data. The largest Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity qmax, was 242.47 mg/g, with the largest MB initial concentration of 400 mg/L. This was a clear indication and a confirmation that MB adsorption by the powdered eggshells was chemisorptive. Moreover, the values of F, the thickness of the boundary layer/film were >0, showing that the rate limiting step for the adsorption process was controlled by more than one diffusion mechanism. The values of ΔG for the adsorption of MB by the adsorbents indicated that the adsorption reactions were all non-feasible and non-spontaneous. The values for ΔS (J/K/mol) for LES, NLES and CPES for the uptake of MB showed decrease in the chaos or degree of randomness of the adsorption reactions, and the reverse was the case for PES, NPES and CLES for the uptake of MB, which showed increase in the chaos or degree of randomness of the adsorption. The adsorption of MB by LES, NLES and CPES gave ΔH(kJ/mol) values which were indicative of endothermic nature of the adsorption systems, and the reverse was the case for the uptake of MB by PES, NPES and CLES, which was indicative of the exothermic nature of the adsorption systems.

Keywords: Citric acid and NaOH modified eggshells; equilibria; kinetics; thermodynamics; surface separation


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About the article

Received: 2018-02-12

Accepted: 2018-11-13

Revised: 2018-06-12

Published Online: 2018-11-28

Declaration of Interest: None.

Citation Information: International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 20180029, ISSN (Online) 1542-6580, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijcre-2018-0029.

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