Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering

Ed. by de Lasa, Hugo / Xu, Charles Chunbao

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.881
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.908

CiteScore 2017: 0.86

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.306
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.503

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Pilot-Scale Study on Improving SNCR Denitrification Efficiency by Using Gas Additives

Zhou Weiqing
  • Electric Power Simulation and Control Engineering Center, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Liu Meng
  • Corresponding author
  • Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Huang Baohua / Qiu Xiaozhi
Published Online: 2018-09-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijcre-2018-0148


The experiment of improving Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) denitrification efficiency with gas additives (CH4 and C3H8) was carried out in the 50 kW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) pilot-scale equipment. The results show that the denitrification efficiency can reach 20 % when the reaction temperature is 650 °C, and the optimum mole ratio of C3H8/NH3 is 0.5. The denitrification efficiency can exceed 50 % when the mole ratio of C3H8/NH3 is 0.4 and the reaction temperature is 720 °C. However, the CH4 additive does not promote denitrification at this temperature. When the reaction temperature is 760 °C, the optimum denitrification efficiency of CH4 is 60 %, and the required CH4/NH3 is 0.8. Once the amount of CH4 exceeds the optimal value, the denitrification efficiency is suppressed. In addition, the concentrations of N2O and CO in the gas increase significantly with an increase of gas additives. Due to the incomplete oxidation of C3H8, a large amount of C2H4 is produced in the low-temperature region (< 750 °C) of SNCR.

Keywords: CFB; SNCR; gas additive; denitrification efficiency


  • Alzueta, M.U., R. Bilbao, and A. Millera. 2000. “Impact of New Findings Concerning Urea Thermal Decomposition on the Modeling of the Urea-SNCR Process.” Energy & Fuels 14 (2): 509–10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Alzueta, M.U., H. Rojel, and P. G. Kristensen. 1997. “Laboratory Study of the CO/NH3/NO/O2 System: Implications for Hydrid Reburn/SNCR Strategies.” Energy and Fuels 11 (3): 716–23.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ayoub, M., M.F. Irfan, and K.S. Yoo. 2011. “Surfactants as Additives for NOx Reduction during SNCR Process with Urea Solution as Reducing Agent.” Energy Convers. Manage 52 (10): 3083–88.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Bae, S.W., S.A. Roh, and S.D. Kim. 2006. “NO Removal by Reducing Agents and Additives in the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Process.” Chemosphere 65 (1): 170–75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bendtsen, A.B., P. Glarborg, and K.I.M. Dam-Johansen. 2000. “Low Temperature Oxidation of Methane: The Influence of Nitrogen Oxides.” Combust Sciences Technological 151 (1): 31–71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cao, Q.X., H. Liu, and S.H. Wu. 2011. “Theoretical Study of the Influence of Mixing on the Selective Noncatalytic Reduction Process with CH4 or H2 Addition.” Industrial Engineering Chemical Researcher 50 (18): 10859–64.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cao, Q.X., H. Liu, S.H. Wu, L.P. Zhao, and X. Huang, 2008. “Kinetic Study of Promoted SNCR Process by Different Gas Additives.” 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai.Google Scholar

  • Dao, D.Q., L. Gasnot, A. El Bakali, and J.F. Pauwels. 2009. “NO Reduction by Selective Noncatalytic Reduction Using Ammonia-Effects of Additives.” International Journal Energy Clean Environment 10 (1–4): 121–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gasnot, L., D.Q. Dao, and J.F. Pauwels. 2012. “Experimental and Kinetic Study of the Effect of Additives on the Ammonia Based SNCR Process in Low Temperature Conditions.” Energy & Fuels 26 (5): 2837–49.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Irfan, N., and A. Farooq, 2017. “Two-Stage NOx Removal Using High Temperature Urea SNCR and Low Temperature Secondary Additive Injection.” 3rd International Conference on Power Generation Systems and Renewable Energy Technologies (PGSRET), Malaysia.Google Scholar

  • Javed, M. T., N. Irfan, and B. M. Gibbs. 2007. “Control of Combustion-Generated Nitrogen Oxides by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction.” Journal of Environmental Management 83 (3): 251–89.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Leckner, B., M. Karlsson, K. Dam-Johansen, C.E. Weinell, P. Kilpinen, and M. Hupa. 1991. “Influence of Additives on Selective Noncatalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide with Ammonia in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.” Industrial Engineering Chemical Researcher 30 (11): 2396–404.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lodder, P., and J.B. Lefers. 1985. “Effect of Natural Gas, C2H6 and CO on the Homogenous Gas Phase Reduction of NOx by NH3.” The Chemical Engineering Journal 30: 161–67.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lv, H.K. 2009. Experimental and Mechanism Study on Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction and Advanced Reburning. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University.Google Scholar

  • Lyon, R.K., and J.E. Hardy. 1986. “Discovery and Development of Thermal DeNOx Process.” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research Fundamentals 25 (1): 19–24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Muzio, L.J., J.K. Arand, and D.P. Teixeira. 1976. “Gas Phase Decomposition of Nitric Oxide in Combustion Products.” Symposium (International) on Combustion 16 (1): 199–208.Google Scholar

  • Niu, S.L., K.H. Han, and C.M. Lu. 2010. “Experimental Study on the Effect of Urea and Additive Injection for Controlling Nitrogen Oxides Emissions.” Environmental Engineering Science 27 (1): 47–53.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Suhlmann, J., and G. Rotzoll. 1993. “Experimental Characterization of the Influence of CO on the High-Temperature Reduction of NO by NH3.” Fuel 72 (2): 175–79.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yang, M., J. Yu, Z. Zhang, and D. Li. 2016. “Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of Flue Gas in A Circulating Fluidized Bed. Energy Sources Part A Recovery.” Util Environment Effective 38 (7): 921–27.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yao, T., Y.F. Duan, Z.Z. Yang, Y. Li, L.W. Wang, C. Zhu, Q. Zhou, et al. 2017. “Experimental Characterization of Enhanced SNCR Process with Carbonaceous Gas Additives.” Chemosphere 177: 149–56.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zhao, Y., H. Wang, and S.Q. Hao. 2017. “Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Adsorption of NO2 in Flue Gas.” Industrial Engineering Chemical Researcher 56 (32): 9116–23.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-06-15

Accepted: 2018-09-16

Revised: 2018-09-09

Published Online: 2018-09-25

Citation Information: International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 20180148, ISSN (Online) 1542-6580, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijcre-2018-0148.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in