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International Journal on Disability and Human Development

Official journal of the the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board Member: Brooks, Tony / Carmeli, BPT, Eliezer / Caron, MPH, Rosemary M. / Davidson, Philip W / Galil, Ahron / Heller, Tamar / Huff, Marlene B. / Janicki, Matthew P. / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Lindström, Bengt / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / Postolache, Teodor T. / Prasher, Vee / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Stratakis, Constantine A

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.25

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.179
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.234

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Volume 10, Issue 2 (May 2011)


Increasing the self-efficacy of individuals with a disability through a theory-based curriculum applied to playing golf

Kiboum Kim
  • Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
  • Email:
/ David M. Compton
  • Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
/ Gary M. Robb
  • Former Director, National Center on Accessibility and Former President, National Alliance for Accessible Golf Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
Published Online: 2011-05-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd.2011.020


Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) is a theory-based curriculum developed to promote an active life-style and inclusion of individuals with disabilities by enhancing their self-efficacy through golf. Over a 5-year period (2004–2008), 814 participants with and without disabilities from six cities across the USA formally enrolled in Project GAIN. Mentors were used to increase lesson participation, engagement between lessons, and inclusion in golf-related activities. For this study, data from 327 individuals with disabilities and 295 mentors with and without disabilities were used for analysis purposes. Data included measures of perceived self-efficacy in golf, future plans in golf, and a weekly log of golf-related activities. Paired-samples t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA were utilized to examine the effects of Project GAIN on participants’ intention to participate and actual participation in golf-related activities. Results indicated that both study groups (individuals with disabilities and mentors) significantly increased their self-efficacy in golf as well as their intention to play golf in future. Significant increases in golf-related activity were reported in weekly logs over the 5 weeks of data collection. Bonferroni post hoc tests were employed to examine mean differences between weekly observations. Significant mean differences between weeks 1 and 3, and 1 and 5 were found. The Project GAIN curriculum successfully contributed to improving participants’ belief that they could play golf. The study findings support the effectiveness of Project GAIN in increasing golf-related activities that may lead to increased inclusion and physical activity.

Keywords: active lifestyle; golf; inclusion; individuals with disabilities; self-efficacy; theory of planned behavior

About the article

Corresponding author: Kiboum Kim, PhD, Assistant Scientist, Indiana University, School of HPER, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, 1025 E. Seventh Street, RM 133, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-7109, USA

Received: 2010-10-04

Accepted: 2010-12-08

Published Online: 2011-05-10

Published in Print: 2011-05-01

Citation Information: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, ISSN (Online) 2191-0367, ISSN (Print) 2191-1231, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd.2011.020.

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