Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal on Disability and Human Development

Official journal of the the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Online
ISSN
2191-0367
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 10, Issue 4

Issues

Virtual reality posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exposure therapy results with active duty OIF/OEF service members

Albert Rizzo / Greg Reger / Karen Perlman / Barbara Rothbaum / JoAnn Difede / Rob McLay / Ken Graap / Greg Gahm / Scott Johnston / Rob Deal / Jarrell Pair
  • Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Thomas Parsons
  • Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Mike Roy / Russell Shilling / Paul M. Sharkey
Published Online: 2011-09-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/IJDHD.2011.060

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by exposure to traumatic events including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggest that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual reality (VR) delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been used with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper, is to present the rationale and brief description of a Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD VR therapy application and present initial findings from its use with PTSD patients. Thus far, Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan consists of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern VR contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. User-centered design feedback, needed to iteratively evolve the system, was gathered from returning Iraq War veterans in the USA and from a system deployed in Iraq and tested by an Army Combat Stress Control Team. Results from an open clinical trial at San Diego Naval Medical Center of the first 20 treatment completers indicate that 16 no longer met PTSD screening criteria at post-treatment, with only one not maintaining treatment gains at 3 month follow-up.

Keywords: exposure therapy; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); Virtual Afghanistan; Virtual Iraq

About the article

Corresponding author: Albert Rizzo, Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, 13274 Fiji Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292, USA


Received: 2010-10-27

Accepted: 2011-04-27

Published Online: 2011-09-02

Published in Print: 2011-11-01


Citation Information: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 301–308, ISSN (Online) 2191-0367, ISSN (Print) 2191-1231, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/IJDHD.2011.060.

Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Greg M. Reger, Derek Smolenski, Amanda Edwards-Stewart, Nancy A. Skopp, Albert “Skip” Rizzo, and Aaron Norr
Telemedicine and e-Health, 2018
[2]
Greg M. Reger, Derek Smolenski, Aaron Norr, Andrea Katz, Benjamin Buck, and Barbara O. Rothbaum
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in