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International Journal on Disability and Human Development

Official journal of the the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Editor-in-Chief: Merrick, Joav

Editorial Board Member: Brooks, Tony / Carmeli, BPT, Eliezer / Caron, MPH, Rosemary M. / Davidson, Philip W / Galil, Ahron / Heller, Tamar / Huff, Marlene B. / Janicki, Matthew P. / Kerr, Mike / Levy, Howard B / Lindström, Bengt / Morad, Mohammed / Omar, Hatim A. / Postolache, Teodor T. / Prasher, Vee / Shek, Daniel T.L. / Sher, Leo / Stratakis, Constantine A

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.25

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.179
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.234

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Volume 13, Issue 2 (May 2014)


Application of SPSS linear mixed methods to adolescent development research: basic concepts and steps

Daniel T.L. Shek
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Public Policy Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau, P.R. China
  • Department of Social Work, East China Normal University, P.R. China
  • Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Cecilia M.S. Ma
  • Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-04-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2014-0303


In the context of intervention research, it is always important to ask whether the growth of the participants in the intervention group is superior to that of the control group participants. Although this question can be answered by analyses based on traditional generalized linear models, there are many problems associated with such analyses. Alternatively, individual growth curve (IGC) modeling analyses based on linear mixed methods (LMM) are proposed. Although LMM are available in generic computer software, such as SPSS, there is a paucity of user-friendly manuals and illustrations. To help researchers utilize SPSS in creating IGC models, we present in this paper the basic concepts of IGC modeling and of the process of using SPSS to conduct IGC.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: human development; individual growth curve modeling; linear mixed methods; SPSS


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About the article

Corresponding author: Professor Daniel T.L. Shek, PhD, FHKPS, BBS, SBS, JP, Chair Professor of Applied Social Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Room HJ407, Core H, Hunghom, Hong Kong, P.R. China, E-mail: ; Public Policy Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China; Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau, P.R. China; Department of Social Work, East China Normal University, P.R. China; and Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA

Received: 2013-01-01

Accepted: 2014-02-02

Published Online: 2014-04-22

Published in Print: 2014-05-01

Citation Information: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, ISSN (Online) 2191-0367, ISSN (Print) 2191-1231, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2014-0303.

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