Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal on Disability and Human Development

Official journal of the the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

More options …
Volume 15, Issue 2


Resilience as a focus of a subject on leadership and intrapersonal development

Daniel T.L. Shek
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Centre for Innovative Programmes for Adolescents and Families, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Department of Social Work, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China
  • Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau, P.R. China
  • Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hildie Leung
  • Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P.R. China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-05-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2016-0704


Resilience is an important construct in the positive youth development literature. In this paper, the definition and concept of resilience are introduced. The relationships between resilience and adolescent development as well as leadership are also addressed. To help students develop qualities on resilience, a lecture on resilience is developed in a subject entitled “Tomorrow’s Leaders”. The objectives, intended learning outcomes, lecture outline and lecture materials are presented in this paper. Some issues surrounding the teaching of this lecture are discussed.

Keywords: curriculum development; experiential learning; leadership; resilience; university students


  • 1.

    Seiffge-Krenke I. Coping with relationship stressors: the impact of different working models of attachment and links to adaptation. J Youth Adolesc 2006;35:24–38.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Kroger J, Martinussen M, Marcia JE. Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis. J Adolesc 2010;33:83–98.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Violato C, Kwok D. A cross-cultural validation of a four-factor model of adolescent concerns: a confirmatory factor analysis based on a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. J Adolesc 1995;18:607–17.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Hunt J, Eisenberg D. Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. J Adolesc Health 2010;46:3–10.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Blanco C, Okuda M, Wright C, Hasin DS, Grant BF, Liu SM, et al. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: results from the national epidemiologic study on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:1429–37.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    American College Health Association. American college health association-national college health assessment II: reference group executive summary report fall 2010. Linthicum, MD: American College Health Association, 2011.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Gallagher RP. National survey of counseling center directors. Alexandria, VA: International Association of Counseling Service, 2011.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Coutu DL. How resilience works. Harvard Bus Rev 2002;80:46–56.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Henry DA, Milstein M. Building leadership capacity through resiliency. Lefkosia, Cyprus: Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management, 2006.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J Pers Soc Psychol 2004;86:320–33.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Greene R, Conrad N. Basic assumptions and terms. In: Greene R, editor. Resiliency: an integrated approach to practice, policy, and research. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press, 2002:1–27.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Tusaie K, Dyer J. Resilience: a historical review of the construct. Holist Nurs Prac 2004;18:3–10.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Lengnick-Hall C, Beck T. Beyond bouncing back: the concept of organizational resilience. Paper presented at the National Academy of Management meetings, Seattle, WA, 2003.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Riolli L, Savicki V, Richards J. Psychological capital as a buffer to student stress. Psychol 2012;3:1202–7.Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Pulley ML. Leading resilient organizations. Leadership Action 1997;17:1–5.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Block J. Ego-identity, role variability, and adjustment. J Consult Clinical Psychol 1961;25:392–7.Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Fredrickson BL, Tugade MM, Waugh CE, Larkin GR. What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003;84:365–76.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Taylor SE, Brown JD. Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol Bull 1988;103:193–210.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Davey M, Eaker DG, Walters LH. Resilience processes in adolescents: personality profiles, self-worth, and coping. J Adolesc Res 2003;18:347–62.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Riolli L, Savicki V, Cepani A. Resilience in the face of catastrophe: optimism, personality, and coping in the Kosovo crisis. J App Soc Psychol 2002;32:1604–27.Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Bips L. Students are different now. New York Times 2010. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/10/11/have-college-freshmen-changed/students-are-different-now.

  • 22.

    Block J, Kremen AM. IQ and ego-resiliency: conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. J Pers Soc Psychol 1996;70:349–61.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Lewis R, Frydenberg E. Adolescents least able to cope: how do they respond to their stresses? Br J Guid Couns 2004;32:25–37.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Pritchard ME, Wilson GS, Yamnitz B. What predicts adjustment among college students? A longitudinal panel study. J Am Coll Health 2007;56:15–22.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Dinsmore JA, Johnson N, Hof DD. The relationship between college students’ resilience level and type of alcohol use. Int J Psychol 2011;8:67–82.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Fraser MW, Kirby LD, Smokowski PR. Risk and resilience in childhood. In: Fraser MW, editor. Risk and resilience in childhood: an ecological perspective. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2004:13–66.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Wilks SE, Spivey CA. Resilience in undergraduate social work students: social support and adjustment to academic stress. Soc Work Educ 2010;29:276–88.Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Dumont M, Provost MA. Resilience in adolescents: protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. J Youth Adolesc 1999;28:343–63.Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Bonanno GA, Papa A, O’Neill K. Loss and human resilience. Appl Prevent Psychol 2001;10:193–206.Google Scholar

  • 30.

    Huy QN. Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change. Acad Manage Rev 1999;24:325–45.Google Scholar

  • 31.

    Mallak LA. Measuring resilience in health care provider organizations. Health Manpower Manage 1998;24:148–52.Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Youssef CM, Luthans F. Resiliency development of organizations, leaders and employees: multi-level theory building for sustained performance. In: Gardner W, Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO, editors. Authentic leadership theory and practice: origins, effects, and development, vol 4. Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 2005:283–97.Google Scholar

  • 33.

    Bass BM. Bass and Stodgill’s handbook of leadership: theory, research, and managerial applications, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Free Press, 1990.Google Scholar

  • 34.

    Luthans F, Youssef CM, Avolio BJ. Psychological capital: developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007.Google Scholar

  • 35.

    Luthans F, Avey JB, Clapp-Smith R, Li W. More evidence on the value of Chinese workers’ psychological capital: a potentially unlimited competitive resource? Int J Hum Resour Man 2008;19:818–27.Google Scholar

  • 36.

    Stoltz PG. Building resilience for uncertain times. Leader Leader 2004;31:16–20.Google Scholar

  • 37.

    King GA, Rothstein MG. Resilience and leadership: the self-management of failure. In: Rothstein MG, Burke RJ, editors. Self-management and leadership development. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010:361–94.Google Scholar

  • 38.

    Shek DT. Adolescent developmental issues in Hong Kong: relevance to positive youth development programs in Hong Kong. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2006;18:341–54.Google Scholar

  • 39.

    Shek DT. Nurturing holistic development of university students in Hong Kong: where are we and where should we go? ScientificWorldJournal 2010;10:563–75.Google Scholar

  • 40.

    Organization Health. Resilience assessment questionnaire. Available at: http://www.orghealth.co.uk/. Accessed: 23 Oct 2013.

  • 41.

    Stanford. ‘You’ve got to find what you love,’ Jobs says. Stanford Report; 2005. Available at: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html.

  • 42.

    American Psychological Association. Road to resilience. Available at: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx. Accessed: 23 Oct 2013.

  • 43.

    Shek DT, Sun RC. Promoting leadership and intrapersonal competence in university students: what can we learn from Hong Kong? Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2012;11:221–8.Google Scholar

  • 44.

    Shek DT, Sun RC. Promoting psychosocial competencies in university students: evaluation based on a one-group pretest-posttest design. Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2012;11:229–34.Google Scholar

  • 45.

    Shek DT, Sun RC. Process evaluation of a positive youth development course in a university setting in Hong Kong. Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2012;11:235–41.Google Scholar

  • 46.

    Shek DT, Sun RC. Qualitative evaluation of a positive youth development course in a university setting in Hong Kong. Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2012;11:243–8.Google Scholar

  • 47.

    Shek DT, Sun RC. Focus group evaluation of a positive youth development course in a university in Hong Kong. Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2012;11:249–54.Google Scholar

  • 48.

    Shek DT. Post-lecture evaluation of a positive youth development subject for university students in Hong Kong. ScientificWorldJournal 2012. DOI: .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Daniel T.L. Shek, PhD, FHKPS, BBS, SBS, JP, Associate Vice President (Undergraduate Programme) and Chair Professor of Applied Social Sciences, Department of Applied Social Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong, P.R. China

Received: 2014-09-07

Accepted: 2014-10-03

Published Online: 2016-05-28

Published in Print: 2016-06-01

Citation Information: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 149–155, ISSN (Online) 2191-0367, ISSN (Print) 2191-1231, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2016-0704.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in