Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems

Editor-in-Chief: Sidhu, Tarlochan

Ed. by Khaparde, S A / Rosolowski, Eugeniusz / Saha, Tapan K / Gao, Fei

CiteScore 2018: 0.86

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.220
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.430

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 16, Issue 4


A New Adaptive Differential Protection Scheme for Tap Changing Power Transformer

Ashesh Mukeshbhai Shah
  • Corresponding author
  • Electrical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College, Jhalod Road Dahod Gujarat, Dahod, Gujarat 389121, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Bhavesh Bhalja
Published Online: 2015-06-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijeeps-2015-0005


This paper presents a new adaptive differential protection scheme which efficiently adapts the change in tap position of a power transformer. The proposed scheme is based on analytical derivation of pick-up and slope of the differential relay characteristic. By acquiring information such as rating & connection of CTs and present tap position as input, the proposed scheme enhances sensitivity of differential relay during internal faults. This is accomplished either by decreasing pick-up and/or adjusting slope of the differential characteristic of the relay in case of change in tap position. Numerous test cases consisting of various types of internal and external faults have been simulated for an existing power transformer of Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Limited (GETCO), Gujarat, India using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. The proposed scheme increases percentage of winding to be protected during internal faults for power transformers having different ratings and connections compared to the conventional differential protection scheme. Furthermore, it has been observed that the detection sensitivity during special types of turn-to-turn and inter-winding faults with varying fault resistances is also enhanced compared to the conventional scheme. Moreover, it equally maintains stability during CT saturation condition. At the end, comparative evaluation of the proposed scheme with the existing schemes clearly indicates superiority of the proposed adaptive scheme.

Keywords: differential protection; adaptive setting; tap changing of transformer; internal fault


  • 1.

    Zhao WK, He JN, Bo ZQ, Klimkek A. The improvement of the digital differential relay in on-load tap changer transformer, Int. Conf. on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, April 2009: 1–4.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Mason CR. The art & science of protective relaying, general electric company. New York: McGraw Hill Co, 1956.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Transformer Protection RET650 ANSI, Application Manual, 1MRK 504 128-UUS, Product version 1.2, Issued: March 2012, ABB Inc.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Girgis AA, Hart DG, Chang WB. An adaptive scheme for digital protection of power transformers. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 1992;7:546–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Oliveira MO, Ferreira GD, García FH, Bretas AS, Perrone OE, Reversat JH, Adaptive differential protection for power transformer based on transient signal analysis, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, San Diego, CA, 2012: 1–7.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Rahmati A, An adaptive differential relay for ct saturation based on wavelet transform, IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference Exposition, New Orleans, LA, 2010: 1–6.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Maheshwari RP, Verma HK. Adaptive digital differential relay of parabolic characteristic for transformer protection. Electr Mach Power Syst 1997;25:459–73.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Horowitz SH, Phadke AG, Thorp JS. Adaptive transmission system relaying. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 1988;3:1436–45.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Guzman A, Zocholl Z, Benmouyal G, Altuve HJ. A current-based solution for transformer differential protection–part I: problem statement. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 2001;16:485–91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Heathcote MJ. The J & P transformer book, 12th ed. Oxford: Newnes, 1998.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Communication within the Substation—Integration of Transformer Voltage Regulators via IEC 61850. Regensburg, Germany: Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen. Available at: http://www.reinhausen.com.

  • 12.

    Hayder T, Schaerli U, Feser K, Schiel L. Universal adaptive differential protection for regulating transformers. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 2008;23:568–75.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Villamagna N, Crossley PA. A CT saturation detection algorithm using symmetrical components for current differential protection. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 2006;21:38–45.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Shah AM, Bhalja B. Discrimination between internal faults and other disturbances in transformer using support vector machine based protection scheme. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 2013;28:1508–15.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    P632 Transformer differential protection device manual, Version 601, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, 1999.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Kulkarni SV, Khaparde SA. Transformer engineering–design and practice. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 2005.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2015-06-30

Published in Print: 2015-08-01

Citation Information: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 339–348, ISSN (Online) 1553-779X, ISSN (Print) 2194-5756, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijeeps-2015-0005.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in