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International Journal of Legal Discourse

Editor-in-Chief: Cheng, Le

Managing Editor: Sun, Yuxiu

Online
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2364-883X
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The Web as a legal language resource

Patrizia Giampieri
Published Online: 2019-06-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijld-2019-2016

Abstract

The literature has long explored the Web as corpus for language research and practice. However, little has been written on the Web as a legal language resource. This paper is aimed at exploring the Web as a tool which can provide answers to legal language queries. In this respect, it will show how Google advanced search and the WebCorp Web concordancer can shed light on legal language and bring recurrent patterns to the surface. To this aim, a few issues will be addressed touching upon the query search syntax, the choice of the best translation candidates, the extraction of frequent collocations, the noticing of high recurrences, etc. Considering the shortcomings and the advantages of Google advanced search and of the WebCorp Web concordancer, the paper findings will argue that the Web as corpus can be a reliable legal language resource as long as a selection of tools are used, and the query syntax is accurate.

Keywords: computational linguistics; legal language; legal translations; corpus analysis; Web as corpus; Google advanced search

    References

    • Altay, A. 2002. Difficulties encountered in the translation of legal texts: The case of Turkey. Translation Journal 6(4). https://www.translationjournal.net/journal/22legal.htm (accessed 13 March 2019).

    • Andrades Moreno, A. 2013. Internet como fuente para la compilación de corpus jurídicos. [The internet as a source to compile legal corpora]. Enlaces 15. 1–15.Google Scholar

    • Austermühl, F. 2001. Electronic tools for translators. Manchester & Northampton, MA: St Jerome.Google Scholar

    • Buendía-Castro, M. & C. I. López-Rodríguez. 2013. The Web for corpus and the Web as corpus in translator training. New Voices in Translation Studies 10. 54–71.Google Scholar

    • Carter, R. A. & M. J. McCarthy. 2006. Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

    • Cheng, L., M. Gong & J. Li. 2017. Conceptualizing cultural discrepancies in legal translation: A case-based study. Semitoica 216. 131–149.Google Scholar

    • Cheng, L., J. Pei & M. Danesi. 2019. A sociosemiotic interpretation of cybersecurity in U.S. Legislative discourse. Social semiotics. Social Semiotics 29(3). 319–335.Google Scholar

    • Enríquez Raído, V. 2014. Translation and web searching. New York & London: Routledge.Google Scholar

    • Ferraresi, A. 2009. Google and beyond: Web-as-corpus methodologies for translators. Revista Tradumàtica 7. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3335/aa343cb5218f3a12eaf8f556e7c03f44d285.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

    • Fletcher, W. H. 2007. Concordancing the Web: Promise and problems, tools and techniques. In M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf & C. Biewer (eds.), Corpus linguistics and the Web, 25–46. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

    • Gallego-Hernández, D. 2015. The use of corpora as translation resources: A study based on a survey of Spanish professional translators. Perspectives 23(3). 375–391.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

    • Gatto, M. 2008. From body to Web: An introduction to Web as corpus. Roma: Laterza.Google Scholar

    • Gatto, M. 2011. The ‘body’ and the ‘web’: The web as corpus ten years on. ICAME Journal 35. 35–58. http://clu.uni.no/icame/ij35/Maristella_Gatto.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

    • Gatto, M. 2014. Web as corpus: Theory and practice. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar

    • Giampieri, P. 2016. A critical comparative analysis of online tools for legal translations. The Italian Law Journal 2(2). 445–461.Google Scholar

    • Giampieri, P. 2017. Legal English per avvocati e traduttori. [Legal English for lawyers and translators]. Milan: Giuffrè.Google Scholar

    • Giampieri, P. 2018a. Online parallel and comparable corpora for legal translations. Altre Modernità 20. 227–252.Google Scholar

    • Giampieri, P. 2018b. The web as corpus and online corpora for legal translations. Comparative Legilinguistics 33. 35–55.Google Scholar

    • Jensen, V, B. Mousten & A. L. Laursen. 2012. Electronic corpora as translation tools: A solution in practice. Communication & Language at Work 1(1). 21–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Kehoe, A. & A. Renouf. 2002. WebCorp: Applying the Web to linguistics and linguistics to the Web. Proceedings of the WWW 2002 Conference. Hawaii: Honolulu, 7–11 May 2002.Google Scholar

    • Kilgarriff, A. 2001. Web as corpus. Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference (CL 2001). University Centre for Computer Research on Language Technical Paper. 13, Special Issue, Lancaster University, 342–344. https://www.kilgarriff.co.uk/Publications/2003-KilgGrefenstette-WACIntro.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

    • Kilgarriff, A. 2007. Googleology is bad science. Computational Linguistics 33(1). 147–151.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

    • Krüger, R. 2012. Working with corpora in the translation classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 4. 505–525.Google Scholar

    • Lüdeling, A., S. Evert & M. Baroni. 2007. Using Web data for linguistic purposes. In M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf & C. Biewer (eds.), Corpus linguistics and the Web, 7–24. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

    • O’Keeffe, A. & M. McCarthy. 2010. The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

    • Renouf, A. & J. Sinclair. 1991. Collocational frameworks in English. In K. Aijmer & B. Altenberg (eds.), English corpus linguistics: Studies in honour of Jan Svartvik, 128–144. London: Longman.Google Scholar

    • Sánchez-Gijón, P. 2009. Developing documentation skills to build do-ityourself corpora in the specialised translation course. In A. Beeby, I. Rodríguez & P. Sánchez-Gijón (eds.), Corpus use and translating. Corpus use for learning to translate and learning corpus use to translate, 109–127. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

    • Sun, Y. & L. Cheng. 2017. Linguistic variation and legal representation in legislative discourse: A corpus-based multi-dimensional study. International Journal of Legal Discourse 2(2). 315–339.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

    • Tiersma, P. M. & L. M. Solan. 2012. The Oxford handbook of language and law. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

    • Vigier Moreno, F. J. 2016. Teaching the use of ad hoc corpora. Language and Law/Linguagem E Direito 3(1). 100–119.Google Scholar

    • Zanettin, F. 2009. Corpus-based translation activities for language learners. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 3(2). 209–224.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    Online Resources

References

  • Altay, A. 2002. Difficulties encountered in the translation of legal texts: The case of Turkey. Translation Journal 6(4). https://www.translationjournal.net/journal/22legal.htm (accessed 13 March 2019).

  • Andrades Moreno, A. 2013. Internet como fuente para la compilación de corpus jurídicos. [The internet as a source to compile legal corpora]. Enlaces 15. 1–15.Google Scholar

  • Austermühl, F. 2001. Electronic tools for translators. Manchester & Northampton, MA: St Jerome.Google Scholar

  • Buendía-Castro, M. & C. I. López-Rodríguez. 2013. The Web for corpus and the Web as corpus in translator training. New Voices in Translation Studies 10. 54–71.Google Scholar

  • Carter, R. A. & M. J. McCarthy. 2006. Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Cheng, L., M. Gong & J. Li. 2017. Conceptualizing cultural discrepancies in legal translation: A case-based study. Semitoica 216. 131–149.Google Scholar

  • Cheng, L., J. Pei & M. Danesi. 2019. A sociosemiotic interpretation of cybersecurity in U.S. Legislative discourse. Social semiotics. Social Semiotics 29(3). 319–335.Google Scholar

  • Enríquez Raído, V. 2014. Translation and web searching. New York & London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Ferraresi, A. 2009. Google and beyond: Web-as-corpus methodologies for translators. Revista Tradumàtica 7. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3335/aa343cb5218f3a12eaf8f556e7c03f44d285.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

  • Fletcher, W. H. 2007. Concordancing the Web: Promise and problems, tools and techniques. In M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf & C. Biewer (eds.), Corpus linguistics and the Web, 25–46. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

  • Gallego-Hernández, D. 2015. The use of corpora as translation resources: A study based on a survey of Spanish professional translators. Perspectives 23(3). 375–391.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Gatto, M. 2008. From body to Web: An introduction to Web as corpus. Roma: Laterza.Google Scholar

  • Gatto, M. 2011. The ‘body’ and the ‘web’: The web as corpus ten years on. ICAME Journal 35. 35–58. http://clu.uni.no/icame/ij35/Maristella_Gatto.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

  • Gatto, M. 2014. Web as corpus: Theory and practice. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar

  • Giampieri, P. 2016. A critical comparative analysis of online tools for legal translations. The Italian Law Journal 2(2). 445–461.Google Scholar

  • Giampieri, P. 2017. Legal English per avvocati e traduttori. [Legal English for lawyers and translators]. Milan: Giuffrè.Google Scholar

  • Giampieri, P. 2018a. Online parallel and comparable corpora for legal translations. Altre Modernità 20. 227–252.Google Scholar

  • Giampieri, P. 2018b. The web as corpus and online corpora for legal translations. Comparative Legilinguistics 33. 35–55.Google Scholar

  • Jensen, V, B. Mousten & A. L. Laursen. 2012. Electronic corpora as translation tools: A solution in practice. Communication & Language at Work 1(1). 21–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kehoe, A. & A. Renouf. 2002. WebCorp: Applying the Web to linguistics and linguistics to the Web. Proceedings of the WWW 2002 Conference. Hawaii: Honolulu, 7–11 May 2002.Google Scholar

  • Kilgarriff, A. 2001. Web as corpus. Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference (CL 2001). University Centre for Computer Research on Language Technical Paper. 13, Special Issue, Lancaster University, 342–344. https://www.kilgarriff.co.uk/Publications/2003-KilgGrefenstette-WACIntro.pdf (accessed 13 March 2019).

  • Kilgarriff, A. 2007. Googleology is bad science. Computational Linguistics 33(1). 147–151.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Krüger, R. 2012. Working with corpora in the translation classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 4. 505–525.Google Scholar

  • Lüdeling, A., S. Evert & M. Baroni. 2007. Using Web data for linguistic purposes. In M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf & C. Biewer (eds.), Corpus linguistics and the Web, 7–24. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

  • O’Keeffe, A. & M. McCarthy. 2010. The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Renouf, A. & J. Sinclair. 1991. Collocational frameworks in English. In K. Aijmer & B. Altenberg (eds.), English corpus linguistics: Studies in honour of Jan Svartvik, 128–144. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Sánchez-Gijón, P. 2009. Developing documentation skills to build do-ityourself corpora in the specialised translation course. In A. Beeby, I. Rodríguez & P. Sánchez-Gijón (eds.), Corpus use and translating. Corpus use for learning to translate and learning corpus use to translate, 109–127. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Sun, Y. & L. Cheng. 2017. Linguistic variation and legal representation in legislative discourse: A corpus-based multi-dimensional study. International Journal of Legal Discourse 2(2). 315–339.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Tiersma, P. M. & L. M. Solan. 2012. The Oxford handbook of language and law. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Vigier Moreno, F. J. 2016. Teaching the use of ad hoc corpora. Language and Law/Linguagem E Direito 3(1). 100–119.Google Scholar

  • Zanettin, F. 2009. Corpus-based translation activities for language learners. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 3(2). 209–224.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

Online Resources

About the article

Received: 2018-09-12

Accepted: 2019-02-28

Published Online: 2019-06-14

Published in Print: 2019-04-26


Citation Information: International Journal of Legal Discourse, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 109–121, ISSN (Online) 2364-883X, ISSN (Print) 2364-8821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijld-2019-2016.

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