Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health

IMPACT FACTOR 2014: 0.695
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.332

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.370
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.554
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 1.071

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Central Auditory Processing Effects Induced by Solvent Exposure

Adrian Fuente / Bradley McPherson
Published Online: 2007-10-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10001-007-0030-4

Central Auditory Processing Effects Induced by Solvent Exposure

Objectives: Various studies have demonstrated that organic solvent exposure may induce auditory damage. Studies conducted in workers occupationally exposed to solvents suggest, on the one hand, poorer hearing thresholds than in matched non-exposed workers, and on the other hand, central auditory damage due to solvent exposure. Taking into account the potential auditory damage induced by solvent exposure due to the neurotoxic properties of such substances, the present research aimed at studying the possible auditory processing disorder (APD), and possible hearing difficulties in daily life listening situations that solvent-exposed workers may acquire. Materials and Methods: Fifty workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents (xylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone) and 50 non-exposed workers matched by age, gender and education were assessed. Only subjects with no history of ear infections, high blood pressure, kidney failure, metabolic and neurological diseases, or alcoholism were selected. The subjects had either normal hearing or sensorineural hearing loss, and normal tympanometric results. Hearing-in-noise (HINT), dichotic digit (DD), filtered speech (FS), pitch pattern sequence (PPS), and random gap detection (RGD) tests were carried out in the exposed and non-exposed groups. A self-report inventory of each subject's performance in daily life listening situations, the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, was also administered. Results: Significant threshold differences between exposed and non-exposed workers were found at some of the hearing test frequencies, for both ears. However, exposed workers still presented normal hearing thresholds as a group (equal or better than 20 dB HL). Also, for the HINT, DD, PPS, FS and RGD tests, non-exposed workers obtained better results than exposed workers. Finally, solvent-exposed workers reported significantly more hearing complaints in daily life listening situations than non-exposed workers. Conclusions: It is concluded that subjects exposed to solvents may acquire an APD and thus the sole use of pure-tone audiometry is insufficient to assess hearing in solvent-exposed populations.

Keywords: Auditory processing disorder; Dichotic tests; Filtered speech; Solvent exposure; Speech discrimination in noise

  • Morata T, Lemasters GK. Epidemiologic considerations in the evaluation of occupational hearing loss.Occup Med 1995;10:641-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Campo P, Lataye R, Cossec B, Placidi V. Toluene-induced hearing loss: A mid-frequency location of the cochlear lesions.Neurotoxicol Teratol 1997;19:129-40.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Johnson AC, Canlon B. Progressive hair cell loss induced by toluene exposure.Hear Res 1994;75:1-40.Google Scholar

  • Morata TC, Fiorini AC, Fischer FM, Colacioppo S, Wallingford KM, et al. Toluene-induced hearing loss among rotogravure printing workers.Scand J Work Environ Health 1997;23:289-98.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Sliwinska-Kowalska M, Zamyslowska-Szmytke E, Szymczak W, Kotylo P, Fiszer M, et al. Ototoxic effects of occupational exposure to styrene and co-exposure to styrene and noise.J Occup Environ Med 2003;45:15-24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fuente A, McPherson B, Muñoz V, Espina JP. Assessment of central auditory processing in a group of workers exposed to solvents.Acta Otolaryngol 2006;126:1188-94.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Laukli E, Hansen PW. An audiometric test battery for the evaluation of occupational exposure to industrial solvents.Acta Otolaryngol 1995;115:162-4.Google Scholar

  • Moen BE, Riise T, Kyvik KR. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents.Norsk Epidemiol 1999;9:27-31.Google Scholar

  • Niklasson M, Arlinger S, Ledin T, Müller C, Odkvist L, et al. Audiological disturbances caused by long-term exposure to industrial solvents. Relation to the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy.Scand Audiol 1998;27:131-6.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Odvist LM, Arlinger SD, Edling C, Larsby B, Berholtz LM. Audiological and vestibulo-motor findings in workers exposed to solvents and jet fuel.Scand Audiol 1987;16:75-81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Varney NR, Kubu CS, Morrow LA. Dichotic listening performances of patients with chronic exposure to organic solvents.Clinical Neuropsychologist 1998;12:107-12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Odkvist LM, Berholtz LM, Ahlfeldt H, Andersson B, Edling C, et al. Otoneurological and audiological findings in workers exposed to industrial solvents.Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1982;386:249-51.Google Scholar

  • Steinhauer SR, Morrow LA, Condray R, Dougherty GGJr. Event-related potentials in workers with ongoing occupational exposure.Biol Psychiatry 1997;42:854-8.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Abbate C, Giorgianni C, Munao F, Brecciaroli R. Neuro-toxicity induced by exposure to toluene. An electrophysiologic study.Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993;64:389-92.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Vrca A, Bozicevic D, Bozikov V, Fuchs R, Malinar M. Brain stem evoked potentials and visual evoked potentials in relation to the length of occupational exposure to low levels of toluene.Acta Med Croatica 1997;51:215-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Hirata M, Ogawa Y, Okayama A, Goto S. A cross-sectional study on the brainstem auditory evoked potential among workers exposed to carbon disulfide.Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1992;64:321-4.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Keith R. Random Gap Detection test. St. Louis: Auditec; 2000.Google Scholar

  • Morata TC, Little MB. Suggested guidelines for studying the combined effects of occupational exposure to noise and chemicals on hearing.Noise Health 2002;4:73-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Jerger J. Clinical experience with impedance audiometry.Arch Otolaryngol 1970;92:311-24.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Nilsson M, Soli SD, Sullivan JA. Development of the Hearing In Noise Test for the measurement of speech reception thresholds in quiet and in noise.J Acoust Soc Am 1994;95:1085-99.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kramer SE, Kapteyn TS, Festen JM, Tobi H. Factors in subjective hearing disability.Audiology 1995;34:311-20.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Fuente A, McPherson B, Hormazabal X, Kramer S. The Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Spanish version. Proceedings for the IV Pan-American Congress of Audiology / XIII International Symposium on Audiological Medicine, Mexico City; 2006. p. 115.Google Scholar

  • Fuente A, McPherson B. Auditory processing tests for Spanish-speaking adults: An initial study.Int J Audiol 2006;45: 645-59.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Mukari SZ, Keith RW, Tharpe AM, Johnson CD. Development and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language.Int J Audiol 2006;45:344-52.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (Central) auditory processing disorders - the role of the audiologist. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 2005. Available from http://www.asha.org/nr/rdonlyres/8A2204DE-EE09-443C-98AA-3722C18214E3/0/v2PS_CAPD.pdf

About the article

Published Online: 2007-10-11

Published in Print: 2007-01-01

Citation Information: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN (Online) 1896-494X, ISSN (Print) 1232-1087, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10001-007-0030-4.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in