Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation

Editor-in-Chief: Birnir, Björn

Editorial Board: Armbruster, Dieter / Chen, Xi / Bessaih, Hakima / Chou, Tom / Grauer, Rainer / Marzocchella, Antonio / Rangarajan, Govindan / Trivisa, Konstantina / Weikard, Rudi

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.162

CiteScore 2017: 1.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.382
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.636

Mathematical Citation Quotient (MCQ) 2017: 0.12

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 19, Issue 2


Ambient Vibration-Based System Identification of a Medieval Masonry Bastion for Health Assessment using Nonlinear Analyses

Ahmet Can Altunişik / Ali Fuat Genç / Murat Günaydin / Süleyman Adanur / Fatih Yesevi Okur
Published Online: 2018-03-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnsns-2017-0004


Earthquakes have underlined the need for health monitoring and safety assessment of engineering structures in general and especially historical heritage. These structures can be exposed to many different loads such as earthquake and wind that may cause the deterioration and loss of structural integrity. In this study, ambient vibration-based system identification of Zağanos Bastion is carried out for health assessment using linear and nonlinear analyses. 3D finite element analyses of the bastion are performed using relievo drawings and analytical dynamic characteristics are obtained. Ambient vibration tests are conducted on the bastion and experimental dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios are determined. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition Method in the frequency domain and Stochastic Subspace Identification Method in the time domain are used to extract the experimental dynamic characteristics. Maximum differences are minimized using some uncertain parameters to obtain the updated finite element model. Linear and nonlinear time history analyses are carried out using 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion record to display the maximum displacements, stresses and local damage regions with detail. This study suggests that minor damage at the connection points and exterior surface will sustain under destructive earthquakes.

Keywords: ambient vibration test; dynamic characteristics; finite element model; historical heritage; masonry bastion

MSC 2010: 37-Dynamical systems and ergodic theory and 65 Numerical analysis


  • [1]

    M. Betti, M. Orlando and A. Vignoli, Static behaviour of an Italian Medieval Castle: Damage assessment by numerical modeling, Comput. Struct. 89 (2011), 1956–1970.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    A. Bayraktar, A.C. Altunişik, F. Birinci, B. Sevim and T. Türker, Finite-element analysis and vibration testing of a two-span masonry arch bridge, J. Perform. Constr. Fac. 24 (2009), 46–52.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    B. Sevim, A. Bayraktar, A.C. Altunişik, S. Atamtürktür and F. Birinci, Finite element model calibration effects on the earthquake response of masonry arch bridges, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 47 (2011), 621–634.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    A. Saisi, C. Gentile and M. Guidobaldi, Post-earthquake continuous dynamic monitoring of the Gabbia Tower in Mantua, Italy, Constr. Build. Mater. 81 (2015), 101–112.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    M. Valente and G. Milani, Non-linear dynamic and static analyses on eight historical masonry towers in the North-East of Italy, Eng. Struct. 114 (2016), 241–270.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    G. Milani and M. Valente, Comparative pushover and limit analyses on seven masonry churches damaged by the 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events: Possibilities of non-linear finite elements compared with pre-assigned failure mechanisms, Eng. Fail. Anal. 47 (2015), 129–161.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    S. Casolo, G. Milani, G. Uva and C. Alessandri, Comparative seismic vulnerability analysis on ten masonry towers in the coastal Po Valley in Italy, Eng. Struct. 49 (2013), 465–490.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    A. Preciado, Seismic vulnerability and failure modes simulation of ancient masonry towers by validated virtual finite element models, Eng. Fail. Anal. 57 (2015), 72–87.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    P. Pineda, Collapse and upgrading mechanisms associated to the structural materials of a deteriorated masonry tower. Nonlinear assessment under different damage and loading levels, Eng. Fail. Anal. 63 (2016), 72–93.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    A. Bayraktar, A. Şahin, D.M. Özcan and F. Yildirim, Numerical damage assessment of Haghia Sophia bell tower by nonlinear FE modeling, Appl. Math. Model. 34 (2010), 92–121.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    L.A.S. Kouris and A.J. Kappos, Detailed and simplified non-linear models for timber-framed masonry structures, J. Cult. Herit. 13 (2012), 47–58.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    F. Minghini, G. Milani and A. Tralli, Seismic risk assessment of a 50m high masonry chimney using advanced analysis techniques, Eng. Struct. 69 (2014), 255–270.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    M. Betti and L. Galano, Seismic analysis of historic masonry buildings: The vicarious palace in Pescia (Italy), Buildings. 2 (2012), 63–82.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    S. Atamturktur and B. Sevim, Seismic performance assessment of masonry tile domes through nonlinear finite-element analysis, J. Perform. Constr. Fac. 26 (2011), 410–423.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    S. Casolo and C.A. Sanjust, Seismic analysis and strengthening design of a masonry monument by a rigid body spring model: The “Maniace Castle” of Syracuse, Eng. Struct. 31 (2009), 1447–1459.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    ANSYS, Swanson Analysis System, Houston, Pennsylvania, USA, 2013.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    S. Saloustros, L. Pelà, P. Roca and J. Portal, Numerical analysis of structural damage in the church of the Poblet Monastery, Eng. Fail. Anal. 48 (2015), 41–61.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    A. Dal Cin and S. Russo, Influence of the annex on seismic behavior of historic churches, Eng. Fail. Anal. 45 (2014), 300–313.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    F. Cakir, B.S. Seker, A. Durmus, A. Dogangun and H. Uysal, Seismic assessment of a historical masonry mosque by experimental tests and finite element analyses, KSCE J. Civ. Eng. 19 (2015), 158–164.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    A.C. Altunişik, A. Bayraktar, B. Sevim and Ş. Ateş, Ambient vibration based seismic evaluation of isolated Gülburnu highway bridge, Soil. Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 31 (2011), 1496–1510.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21]

    S. Saloustros, L. Pelà, P. Roca and J. Portal, Numerical analysis of structural damage in the church of the Poblet monastery, Eng. Fail. Anal. 48 (2015), 41–61.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22]

    M. Betti and A. Vignoli, Modelling and analysis of a Romanesque church under earthquake loading: Assessment of seismic resistance, Eng. Struct. 30(2) (2008), 352–367.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    M. Betti and A. Vignoli, Numerical assessment of the static and seismic behaviour of the basilica of Santa Maria all’Impruneta (Italy), Constr. Build. Mater. 25(12) (2011), 4308–4324.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    A. Carpinteri, S. Invernizzi and G. Lacidogna, In situ damage assessment and nonlinear modelling of a historical masonry tower, Eng. Struct. 27(3) (2005), 387–395.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    PEER, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2016.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    M. Betti, M. Orlando and A. Vignoli, Modelling and analysis of an Italian medieval castle under earthquake loading: Diagnosis and strengthening, in: Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, Eds. P.B. Lourenço, P. Roca, C. Modena and S. Agrawal, New Delhi, 2006.Google Scholar

  • [27]

    S. Chiostrini, L. Galano and A. Vignoli, In-situ tests and numerical simulations on structural behaviour of ancient masonry, in: Proceedings of Monument-98, Workshop on Seismic Performance of Monuments, pp.1998. 197–206.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-01-05

Accepted: 2018-01-22

Revised: 2017-10-23

Published Online: 2018-03-07

Published in Print: 2018-03-26

Citation Information: International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 107–124, ISSN (Online) 2191-0294, ISSN (Print) 1565-1339, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnsns-2017-0004.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in