Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of the Sociology of Language

Founded by Fishman, Joshua A.

Ed. by Garcia Otheguy, Ofelia / Duchêne, Alexandre / Coulmas, Florian

6 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.505
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.716

Online
ISSN
1613-3668
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 2018, Issue 254

Issues

“An unrealistic expectation”: Māori youth on indigenous language purism

Nathan John AlburyORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3471-4939 / Lyn Carter
Published Online: 2018-09-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2018-0036

Abstract

Linguistic purism can play an especially political role in legitimising and authenticating indigenous identities. For languages now undergoing revitalisation after histories of colonial conquest, purism that precludes foreign influences in language corpora and behaviour can be seen as reversing the impacts of language contact and reasserting indigeneity. This is indeed the case for te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, that was suppressed and essentially outlawed by the British but is now undergoing revitalisation. How indigenous New Zealanders feel about such purism, however, has been subject to minimal inquiry. This article analyses the attitudes of around 200 Māori youth, solicited through an online survey, to purism in Māori vocabulary development and to a recurring purist discourse, commonly reproduced by indigenous elders, that criticises errors when speaking te reo Māori. The article reveals a tension between supporting purism for the linguistic self-determination of the indigenous collective, and rejecting purism on the basis this inhibits the linguistic emancipation of individuals. On balance, it appears these Māori youth may hold significantly less purist attitudes than current language policy and locally pervasive ideology.

Keywords: linguistic purism; Māori; language revitalisation; language attitudes; indigenous youth

References

  • Albury, Nathan John. 2016a. Defining Māori language revitalisation: A project in folk linguistics. Journal of Sociolinguistics 20(3). 287–311.Google Scholar

  • Albury, Nathan John. 2016b. An old problem with new directions: Māori language revitalisation and the policy ideas of youth. Current Issues in Language Planning 17(2). 161–178.Google Scholar

  • Albury, Nathan John & Lyn Carter. 2017. A typology of arguments for and against bilingual place-naming in Aotearoa New Zealand. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Amery, Rob. 2001. Language planning and language revival. Current Issues in Language Planning 2(2–3). 141–221.Google Scholar

  • Ara, Te. 2017. Tiro ki te ara ki te reo. http://www.teara.govt.nz/mi/1966/all/print?page=894

  • Bauer, Winifred. 2008. Is the health of te reo Maori improving?. Te Reo 51. 33–73.Google Scholar

  • Beaglehole, Ernest & Pearl Beaglehole. 1946. Some modern Maoris. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar

  • Benton, Richard. 1996. The Maori language in New Zealand. In Stephen Adolphe Wurm & Peter Mühlhäusler (eds.), Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Texts, 167–170. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Borell, Belinda, et al. 2005. Living in the city ain’t so bad: Cultural identity for young Maori in South Auckland. In James H Liu (ed.), New Zealand identities: Departures and destinations, 191–206. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar

  • Brunstad, Endre. 2003. Standard language and linguistic purism. Sociolinguistica 17(2003). 52–70.Google Scholar

  • Bull, Tove. 2002. The Sámi language(s), maintenance and intellectualisation. Current Issues in Language Planning 3(1). 28–39.Google Scholar

  • Corson, David. 1996. Official-language minority and Aboriginal first-language education: Implications of Norway’s Sámi language act for Canada. Canadian Journal of Education 21(1). 84–104.Google Scholar

  • Cru, Josep. 2016. Shifting language ideologies among young Maya professionals: Overcoming purism in Yucatán. Critical Multilingualism Studies 4(2). 111–132.Google Scholar

  • Degani, Marta. 2012. Language contact in New Zealand: A focus on English lexical borrowings in Māori. Academic Journal of Modern Philology 2012(1). 13–24.Google Scholar

  • Dorian, Nancy C. 1994. Purism vs. compromise in language revitalization and language revival. Language in Society 23(4). 479–494.Google Scholar

  • Eagly, Alice H & Shelly Chaiken. 1993. The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Grinevald, Colette. 1998. Language endangerment in South America. A programmatic approach. In Lenore A Grenoble & Lindsay J Whaley (eds.), Endangered languages: Language loss and community response, 124–160. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Harlow, Ray. 1993. Lexical expansion in Maori. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 102(1). 99–107.Google Scholar

  • Harlow, Ray. 2003. Issues in Maori language planning and revitalisation. He Puna Korero: Journal of Maori and Pacific Development 4(1). 32–43.Google Scholar

  • Harlow, Ray. 2005. Covert attitudes to Māori. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 172. 133–147.Google Scholar

  • Harlow, Ray. 2007. Māori: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Higgins, Rawinia, Poia Rewi, et al. 2014. ZePA-right-shifting: Reorientation towards normalisation. In Rawinia Higgins (ed.), The value of the Maori language: Te hua o te reo Maori, 7–32. Wellington: Huia Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Hinton, Leanne. 2017. Learning and teaching endangered Indigenous languages. In Nelleke Van Deusen-Scholl & Stephen May (eds.), Second and foreign language education, 213–223. Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Houkamau, Carla A & Chris G Sibley. 2010. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement. New Zealand Journal of Psychology 39(1). 8–28.Google Scholar

  • Karetu, Timoti. 1993. Tooku reo, Tooku mana. In Witi Tame Ihimaera, Haare Williams, Irihapeti Ramsden & D.S. Long (eds.), Te ao marama. Regaining Aotearoa. Māori writers speak out. Volume 2, He whakaatanga o te ao. The reality, 222–229. Auckland: Reed Books.Google Scholar

  • Keegan, Peter. 2005. The development of Māori vocabulary. In Allan Bell, Ray Harlow & Donna Starks (eds.), Languages of New Zealand, 131–150. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar

  • King, Jeanette, Ray Harlow, Catherine Watson, Peter Keegan & Margaret Maclagan. 2009. Changing pronunciation of the Māori language. Implications for revitalization. In Jon Reyhner & Louise Lockard (eds.), Indigenous language revitalization. Encouragement, guidance & lessons learned, 85–96. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University.Google Scholar

  • Kroskrity, Paul V. 2009. Language renewal as sites of language ideological struggle: The need for “ideological clarification”. In Jon Reyhner & Louise Lockard (eds.), Indigenous language revitalisation: Encouragement, guidance & lessons learned, 71–84. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University.Google Scholar

  • Langer, Nils & Winifred V Davies (eds.). 2005. Linguistic purism in the Germanic languages. Pages. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Levine, Robert A. 2001. Culture and personality studies, 1918–1960: Myth and history. Journal of Personality 69(6). 803–818.Google Scholar

  • MacIntyre, Peter & Tammy Gregersen. 2012. Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive-broadening power of the imagination. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching II-2. 193–213.Google Scholar

  • Māori Language Information. 2014. FAQ About the Māori language. http://www.maorilanguage.info/mao_lang_faq.html

  • May, Stephen & Richard Hill. 2005. Māori-medium education: Current issues and challenges. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 8(5). 377–403.Google Scholar

  • Pennycook, Alastair. 2006. Postmodernism in language policy. In T Ricento (ed.), An introduction to language policy: Theory and method, 60–76. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Preston, Dennis. 1996. Whaddayaknow?: The modes of folk linguistic awareness. Language Awareness 5(1). 40–74.Google Scholar

  • Reedy, Tamati. 2000. Te Reo Maori: The past 20 years and looking forward. Oceanic Linguistics 39(1). 157–168.Google Scholar

  • Sevinç, Yeşim. 2016. Language maintenance and shift under pressure: Three generations of the Turkish immigrant community in the Netherlands. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 242. 81–117.Google Scholar

  • Sevinç, Yeşim & Jean-Marc Dewaele. 2016. Heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. International Journal of Bilingualism doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spencer, Liz, Jane Ritchie & William O’Connor. 2003. Analysis: Practices, principles and processes. In J Lewis & J Ritchie (eds.), Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers, 199–218. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

  • Spolsky, Bernard. 2004. Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Stewart, Georgina. 2010. Commentary: Language issues in Māori chemistry education. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 6(1). 66–71.Google Scholar

  • Te Taura Whiri i te reo Māori. 2016. Annual report. http://www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz/assets/Corporate-publications/Annual-Report/TTW-AR-2016.pdf

  • Te Taura Whiri i te reo Māori. 2017. Whakahuatanga: Pronunciation. http://www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz/learn-te-reo-maori/whakahuatanga-pronunciation/

  • Trinick, Tony & Stephen May. 2013. Developing a Māori language mathematics lexicon: Challenges for corpus planning in indigenous language contexts. Current Issues in Language Planning 14(3). 457–473.Google Scholar

  • Walsh, Michael. 2005. Will Indigenous languages survive?. Annual Review of Anthropology 34. 293–315.Google Scholar

  • Wei, Li. 2017. Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Whanake, Te. 2017. Māori dictionary. http://maoridictionary.co.nz/

  • Zuckermann, Ghil’ad & Michael Walsh. 2011. Stop, revive, survive: Lessons from the Hebrew revival applicable to the reclamation, maintenance and empowerment of aboriginal languages and cultures. Australian Journal of Linguistics 31(1). 111–127.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-09-18

Published in Print: 2018-10-25


This work was partly supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme, project number 223265.


Citation Information: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Volume 2018, Issue 254, Pages 121–138, ISSN (Online) 1613-3668, ISSN (Print) 0165-2516, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2018-0036.

Export Citation

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in