Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 1.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.375
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.901

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 3, Issue 1 (Mar 2010)


Investigation of in vitro effects of ethephon and chlorpyrifos, either alone or in combination, on rat intestinal muscle contraction

Mustafa Çetinkaya
  • National Food Reference Laboratory, Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bulvari, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Emine Baydan
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ankara, Diskapi, Ankara, Turkey
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-04-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-010-0002-6

Investigation of in vitro effects of ethephon and chlorpyrifos, either alone or in combination, on rat intestinal muscle contraction

A range of pesticides is widely used in pest management and the chances of exposure to multiple organophosphorus (OP) compounds simultaneously are high, especially from dietary and other sources. Although health hazards of individual OP insecticides have been relatively well characterized, there is lesser information on the interactive toxicity of multiple OP insecticides. The aim of this study is to elicit the possible interactions in case combined exposure of an OP pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and a plant growth regulator ethephon (ETF) which are used worldwide. The ileum segments of 3 months old Wistar Albino male rats were used in isolated organ bath containing Tyrode solution. ETF and CPF were incubated (10-7 M concentration) separately or in combination with each other to ileum and their effects on acetylcholine-induced contractions were studied. The data obtained from this study show that, single and combined exposure to the agents caused agonistic interactions with regard to potency of ACh whereas they caused a decrease on Emax value of ACh. These findings suggest that exposure to these agents which have direct and indirect cholinergic effects, may cause developing clinical responses with small doses and earlier but the extent of toxicity will be lower.

Keywords: ethephon; chlorpyrifos; acetylcholine; combination; organophosphate

  • Axelrad JC, Howard CV and McLean WG. (2002). Interactions between pesticides and components of pesticide formulations in an in vitro neurotoxicity test. Toxicology 173: 259-268.Google Scholar

  • Becerra MA, Herrera MD and Marhuenda E. (2001). Action of tacrine on muscarinic receptors in rat intestinal smooth muscle. J Auton Pharmacol 21: 113-119.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Chanda SM, Mortensen SR, Moser VC, Padilla S. (1997). Tissue-Spesific Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Carboxylesterase and Cholinesterase Activity in Adult Rats: An in Vitro and in Vivo Comparison. Fundam App Toxicol 38: 148-157.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cochran RC. (2002). Appraisal of Risks from Nonoccupational Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 35: 105-121.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cook TJ and Shenoy SS. (2003). Intestinal permeability of chlorpyrifos using the single-pass intestinal perfusion method in the rat. Toxicology 184: 125-133.Google Scholar

  • El-Masri HA, Mumtaz MM and Yushak ML. (2004). Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to investigate the toxicological interaction between chlorpyrifos and parathion in the rat. Environ Tox Pharm 16: 57-71.Google Scholar

  • EPA. (1995). Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Ethephon. List A Case 0382. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Washington, D.C. 20460. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/REDs/0382.pdf

  • Haux JE, Lockridge O and Casida JE. (2002). Specificity of Ethephon as a Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Phosphorylating Agent. Chem Res Toxicol 15: 1527-1533.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Haux JE, Quistad GB and Casida JE. (2000). Phosphobutyrylcholinesterase: Phosphorylation of the Esteratic Site of Butyrylcholinesterase by Ethephon [(2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid] Dianion. Chem Res Toxicol 13: 646-651.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Howard MD and Pope CN. (2002). In vitro effects of chlorpyrifos, parathion, methyl parathion and their oxons on cardiac muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Toxicology 170: 1-10.Google Scholar

  • Karanth S, Liu J, Olivier KJr, Pope C. (2004). Interactive toxicity of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion in adult rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 196: 183-190.Google Scholar

  • Kousba AA, Poet TS and Timchalk C. (2003). Characterization of the in vitro kinetic interaction of chlorpyrifos-oxon with rat salivary cholinesterase: A potential biomonitoring matrix. Toxicology 188: 219-232.Google Scholar

  • Poet TS, Wu H, Kousba AA, Timchalk C. (2003). In Vitro Rat Hepatic and Intestinal Metabolism of the Organophosphate Pesticides Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon. Toxicol Sci 72: 193-200.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pope C, Karanth S and Liu J. (2005). Pharmacology and toxicology of cholinesterase inhibitors: uses and misuses of a common mechanism of action. Environ Tox Pharm 19: 433-446.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Segall Y, Grendell RL, Toia RF, Casida JE. (1991). Composition of Technical Ethephon [(2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid] and Some Analogues Relative to Their Reactivity and Biological Activity. J Agric Food Chem 39: 380-385.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Smegal DC. (2000). Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division (7509C). Available from: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/op/chlorpyrifos/hedrra.pdf

  • Sparks SE, Quistad GB and Casida JE. (1999). Organophosphorus Pesticide-Induced Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition and Potentiation of Succinylcholine Toxicity in Mice. J Biochem Molecular Tox 13: 113-118.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Taha MO, Fraga MM, Fagundes DJ, Bandeira CP, Caricati-Neto A, Jurkiewicz A. (2002). Effect of Preservation Conditions on Autonomic Transmission in Rat Small Bowel. Transplantation Proceedings 34: 1021-1024.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Tezuka A, Ishihata A, Aita T, Katano Y. (2004). Aging-related alterations in the contractile responses to acetylcholine, muscarinic cholinoceptors and cholinesterase activities in jejunum and colon of the male Fischer 344 rats. Experimental Gerontology 39: 91-100.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Timchalk C, Nolan RJ, Mendrala AL, Dittenber DA, Brzak KA, Mattsson JL. (2002). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in rats and humans. Toxicol Sci 66: 34-53.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Timchalk C, Poet TS, Hinman MN, Busby AL, Kousba AA. (2005). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction for a binary mixture of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 205: 31-42.Google Scholar

  • Tomlin CDS. (1997). The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. 11th Ed. The British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar

  • Zhang N and Casida JE. (2002). Novel Irreversible Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Chloro-1-(substituted-phenyl)ethylphosphonic Acids. Bioorg Med Chem 10: 1281-1290.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2010-04-13

Published in Print: 2010-03-01

Citation Information: Interdisciplinary Toxicology, ISSN (Online) 1337-9569, ISSN (Print) 1337-6853, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-010-0002-6.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Saša M. Trailović, Djordje S. Marjanović, Teodora Vidonja Uzelac, Mirjana Milovanović, and Jelena Nedeljković Trailović
Research in Veterinary Science, 2017, Volume 112, Page 18
W. Darwiche, S. Delanaud, S. Dupont, H. Ghamlouch, W. Ramadan, W. Joumaa, V. Bach, and J. Gay-Quéheillard
Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 2017, Volume 29, Number 2, Page e12918
Begum Yurdakok, Emine Baydan, Hamza Okur, and Ismayil Safa Gurcan
Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 2014, Volume 37, Number 4, Page 459
Ebru Yıldırım, Emine Baydan, Murat Kanbur, Oğuz Kul, Miyase Çınar, Hüsamettin Ekici, and Nurgül Atmaca
BioMed Research International, 2013, Volume 2013, Page 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in