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Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 1.43

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Volume 5, Issue 2


Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates

Gagan Flora / Deepesh Gupta / Archana Tiwari
Published Online: 2012-11-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-012-0009-2


Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Though various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. Modulation of cellular thiols for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been used as a therapeutic strategy against lead poisoning. N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, quercetin and a few herbal extracts show prophylaxis against the majority of lead mediated injury in both invitro and in vivo studies. This review provides a comprehensive account of recent updates describing health effects of lead exposure, relevant biomarkers and mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. It also updates the readers about recent advances in chelation therapy and newer therapeutic strategies, like nanoencapsulation, to treat lead induced toxic manifestations.

Keywords : antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; lead toxicity

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Published Online: 2012-11-09

Citation Information: Interdisciplinary Toxicology, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 47–58, ISSN (Online) 1337-9569, ISSN (Print) 1337-6853, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-012-0009-2.

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Alcohol, 2017, Volume 58, Page 1
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Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2016, Volume 159, Page 106
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Pharmaceutical Biology, 2016, Volume 54, Number 8, Page 1458
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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016, Volume 2016, Page 1
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Ali Mokhtarifar, Hooman Mozaffari, Reza Afshari, Ladan Goshayeshi, Kambiz Akavan Rezayat, Kamran Ghaffarzadegan, Mohammadreza Sheikhian, and Farnood Rajabzadeh
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Manish Arora and Dominic J. Hare
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Terra R. Kelly, Bruce A. Rideout, Jesse Grantham, Joseph Brandt, L. Joseph Burnett, Kelly J. Sorenson, Daniel George, Alacia Welch, David Moen, James Rasico, Matthew Johnson, Carie Battistone, and Christine K. Johnson
Biological Conservation, 2015, Volume 191, Page 391
Mathilde Cabral, Aminata Toure, Guillaume Garçon, Cheikh Diop, Saâd Bouhsina, Dorothée Dewaele, Fabrice Cazier, Dominique Courcot, Anta Tall-Dia, Pirouz Shirali, Amadou Diouf, Mamadou Fall, and Anthony Verdin
Environmental Pollution, 2015, Volume 206, Page 247
Natalia Pawlas, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Agnieszka Mikołajczyk, and Sławomir Kasperczyk
Biological Trace Element Research, 2016, Volume 170, Number 1, Page 1
Omnia Ismail Mohamed, Abeer Fekry El-Nahas, Yasser Said El-Sayed, and Khaled Mohamed Ashry
Pharmaceutical Biology, 2015, Page 1
Esther Ng, P. Monica Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Erik Ingelsson, Anubha Mahajan, Andrew Morris, and Lars Lind
Human Molecular Genetics, 2015, Volume 24, Number 16, Page 4739
Adam Weisman, Beverly Chou, Jeffrey O'Brien, and Kenneth J. Shea
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2015, Volume 90, Page 81
Mili Pal, Meenu Sachdeva, Niharika Gupta, Priyanka Mishra, Mahavir Yadav, and Archana Tiwari
Biological Trace Element Research, 2015, Volume 168, Number 2, Page 380
Yali Chen, Jiejie Chen, Siqin Chen, Ke Tian, and Hong Jiang
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, Volume 3, Number 18, Page 9843
Shimelis Admassie, Anders Elfwing, Andreas Skallberg, and Olle Inganäs
Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2015, Volume 1, Number 3, Page 326
K.C. Krishnapriya, Ananya Baksi, Swathi Chaudhari, Soujit Sen Gupta, and T. Pradeep
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2015, Volume 297, Page 183
A. Kapitsinou, A. Soldatou, A. Tsitsika, L. Kossiva, Ch. Tsentidis, P. Nisianakis, S. Theocharis, and A. Garoufi
Child: Care, Health and Development, 2015, Volume 41, Number 6, Page 1199
Li Sui, Rui‑Hong Zhang, Ping Zhang, Ke‑Li Yun, Hong‑Cai Zhang, Li Liu, and Ming‑Xu Hu
Bioscience Reports, 2015, Volume 35, Number 2, Page 1
Ce Gao, David Weisman, Jiaqi Lan, Na Gou, and April Z. Gu
Environmental Science & Technology, 2015, Volume 49, Number 7, Page 4618
Mohamed M. Soliman, Ahmed A. Baiomy, and Magdy H. Yassin
Biological Trace Element Research, 2015, Volume 167, Number 1, Page 91
Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, Andréia Ávila Soares de Oliveira, André van Helvoort Lengert, Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira, Rossana Batista de Oliveira Godoy Camargo, Denise Grotto, Juliana Valentini, Solange Cristina Garcia, Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus, Joseph Adeyemi, and Fernando Barbosa
Environmental Research, 2015, Volume 138, Page 224
N. Y. Rusetskaya and V. B. Borodulin
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry, 2015, Volume 9, Number 1, Page 45
Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Kátia Cristina De Marco, Vânia Braghini de Rezende, Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, and Fernando Barbosa
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015, Volume 69, Number 2, Page 173
Vesna Matović, Aleksandra Buha, Danijela Ðukić-Ćosić, and Zorica Bulat
Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2015, Volume 78, Page 130
P. Chellan and P. J. Sadler
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2015, Volume 373, Number 2037, Page 20140182
Abdul Haleem Panhwar, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hassan Imran Afridi, Salma Aslam Arain, Mariam S. Arain, Kapil Dev Brahman, Naeem Ullah, Jamshed Ali, and Sadaf Sadia Arain
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2015, Volume 187, Number 2
Callum Liddicoat, Barry Hucker, Hao Liang, and Frank Vriesekoop
Food Chemistry, 2015, Volume 177, Page 325
Jingwen Chen, Muyan Li, Qun Lv, Guoli Chen, Yong Li, Shaojun Li, Yuhuan Mo, Shiyan Ou, Zongxiang Yuan, Mingli Huang, and Yueming Jiang
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 2015, Volume 30, Page 137
Sara Mostafalou, Maryam Baeeri, Haji Bahadar, Mohammad Soltany-Rezaee-Rad, Mahdi Gholami, and Mohammad Abdollahi
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2015, Volume 39, Number 1, Page 16
Itzel-Citlalli Aguilar-Dorado, Gerardo Hernández, Martha-Angelica Quintanar-Escorza, María Maldonado-Vega, Margarita Rosas-Flores, and José-Víctor Calderón-Salinas
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2014, Volume 281, Number 2, Page 195
Mustafa T Yıldızgören, Ali E Baki, Murat Kara, Timur Ekiz, Tülay Tiftik, Engin Tutkun, Hınç Yılmaz, and Levent Özçakar
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2015, Volume 25, Number 4, Page 417
Hilmar A. Holland, Bernd R. Schöne, Soraya Marali, and Klaus P. Jochum
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014, Volume 87, Number 1-2, Page 104
Rajarami Reddy Gottipolu and Chand Basha Davuljigari
Biological Trace Element Research, 2014, Volume 162, Number 1-3, Page 270
Jane Barlow, Ron Gray, Debra Bick, and Yan-Shing Chang
Journal of Children's Services, 2014, Volume 9, Number 2, Page 109
Dhriti Kapoor, Satwinderjeet Kaur, and Renu Bhardwaj
BioMed Research International, 2014, Volume 2014, Page 1
Hiba Shabir, Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, and Luqman A. Khan
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 2014, Volume 96, Number 2, Page 307
Shauna M. McKelvey, Karina A. Horgan, and Richard A. Murphy
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 2015, Volume 29, Page 151
Xinyi Yang, Bin Wang, Hongqiang Zeng, Chunqing Cai, Qiansheng Hu, Shaoxi Cai, Lei Xu, Xiaojing Meng, and Fei Zou
Brain Research, 2014, Volume 1575, Page 12
Jina Kim, Youngeun Lee, and Mihi Yang
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 2014, Volume 32, Number 2, Page 159
Qilin Yu, Meiqing Sun, Yu Wang, Mingchun Li, and Lu Liu
RSC Adv., 2014, Volume 4, Number 39, Page 20371
Nafisur Rahman and Uzma Haseen
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2014, Volume 53, Number 19, Page 8198
Beibei Chen, Zebo Wang, Dongxue Hu, Qingqing Ma, Linna Huang, Chengyin Xv, Zhiyong Guo, and Xiaohua Jiang
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2014, Volume 200, Page 310
Wylly Ramsés García-Niño and José Pedraza-Chaverrí
Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2014, Volume 69, Page 182
Richard C. Cabot, Eric S. Rosenberg, Nancy Lee Harris, Jo-Anne O. Shepard, Alice M. Cort, Sally H. Ebeling, Emily K. McDonald, Lawrence S. Friedman, Leigh H. Simmons, Rose H. Goldman, and Aliyah R. Sohani
New England Journal of Medicine, 2014, Volume 370, Number 16, Page 1542
Pooja Ghosh, Mihir Tanay Das, and Indu Shekhar Thakur
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014, Volume 21, Number 13, Page 8084
Cátia A. Sousa and Eduardo V. Soares
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2014, Volume 98, Number 11, Page 5153
Fernando Aguilar-Galindo, M. Merced Montero-Campillo, Manuel Yáñez, and Otilia Mó
Chemical Physics Letters, 2014, Volume 598, Page 91
Mustafa Mohammadi, Rana Ghaznavi, Rana Keyhanmanesh, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Roya Naderi, and Hossein Mohammadi
The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Volume 2014, Page 1
Sławomir Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Grzegorz Machnik, and Ewa Birkner
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2014, Volume 37, Number 2, Page 638
Krishan Chander, Kumar Vaibhav, Md. Ejaz Ahmed, Hayate Javed, Rizwana Tabassum, Andleeb Khan, Mukesh Kumar, Anju Katyal, Fakhrul Islam, and M. Saeed Siddiqui
Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2014, Volume 68, Page 297
Nisha Gaur, Gagan Flora, Mahavir Yadav, and Archana Tiwari
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Volume 16, Number 2, Page 180
Bulletin of Materials Science, 2013, Volume 36, Number 6, Page 1127
Ruozhen Yu, Zheng Fang, Wei Meng, Zhenguang Yan, Lina Du, Hong Wang, and Zhengtao Liu
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2014, Volume 8, Number 5, Page 729
Manoj Kumar Velaga, Charan Kumar Basuri, Kendra S. Robinson Taylor, Prabhakara Rao Yallapragada, Sharada Rajanna, and Bettaiya Rajanna
Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 2014, Volume 37, Number 3, Page 357
Surya Nagarajan, Kalaiarasi Sivaji, Sridharan Krishnaswamy, Brindha Pemiah, Kalpoondi Sekar Rajan, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, and Swaminathan Sethuraman
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2014, Volume 151, Number 1, Page 1
Izzeldin A.A. Hamza, Bice S. Martincigh, J. Catherine Ngila, and Vincent O. Nyamori
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 2013, Volume 66, Page 157
Khaled Radad, Khaled Hassanein, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Rudolf Moldzio, and Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 2014, Volume 66, Number 1, Page 13
Özgür Arar
Desalination and Water Treatment, 2014, Volume 52, Number 16-18, Page 3197
Sławomir Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Alina Ostałowska, and Ewa Birkner
Clinical Toxicology, 2013, Volume 51, Number 6, Page 480
Ashok Kumar Shettihalli and Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi
Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2013, Volume 26, Number 6, Page 918
Margaret E. Sears
The Scientific World Journal, 2013, Volume 2013, Page 1
Hao-Wen Li, Jia-Gang Deng, Zheng-Cai Du, Mao-Sheng Yan, Zhi-Xiang Long, Phuong-Thao Pham Thi, and Ke-Di Yang
Biological Trace Element Research, 2013, Volume 152, Number 2, Page 233
Yi-Ting Wang, Der-Wan Tzeng, Chun-Yu Wang, Jing-Yin Hong, and Jia-Ling Yang
Toxicology, 2013, Volume 305, Page 120

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