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International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching

Ed. by Jordens, Peter / Roberts, Leah

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.242

CiteScore 2017: 1.47

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.892
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.915

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Volume 53, Issue 2


Primary and secondary effects of processing instruction on Spanish clitic pronouns

Justin White
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  • Department of Languages, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
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Published Online: 2015-05-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2015-0008


This study investigates the effects of token item frequency in Structured Input activities on both a primary target form (Spanish accusative clitics) and a secondary target form (Spanish dative clitics). Participants included 460 adult learners enrolled in a beginning-level Spanish language course and they were exposed to either 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, or 140 target form tokens. This study included a pretest, immediate posttest, and a delayed posttest measuring interpretation and production of both primary and secondary target forms. Findings reveal that primary form interpretation effects across all frequencies, however, production findings present themselves with the 60 and 80 token groups only. Secondary form interpretation findings reveal themselves across all frequency levels with the exception of the lowest frequency investigated (40 tokens) and secondary form production mirror those found in previous studies on the same forms. As such, we discuss the theoretical and methodological ramifications of these findings as well as directions for future research.

Keywords: second language acquisition; processing instruction; Spanish language; pronouns

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Published Online: 2015-05-29

Published in Print: 2015-06-01

Citation Information: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 151–179, ISSN (Online) 1613-4141, ISSN (Print) 0019-042X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2015-0008.

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