Baddeley, A. D. 1997. Human memory: Theory and practice (Revised ed.). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Barcroft, J. 2012. Input-based incremental vocabulary instruction. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Google Scholar
Bjork, R. A. 1994. Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe & A. Shimamura (eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing, 185–205. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Chen, C.-H. & K. Huang. 2014. The effects of response modes and cues on language learning, cognitive load and self-efficacy beliefs in web-based learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 23. 117–134.Google Scholar
Clariana, R. B. & D. Lee. 2001. The effects of recognition and recall study tasks with feedback in a computer-based vocabulary lesson. Educational Technology Research and Development 49. 23–36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Elgort, I. & A. E. Piasecki. 2014. The effect of a bilingual learning mode on the establishment of lexical semantic representations in the L2. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 17. 572–588.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C. & A. Beaton. 1993. Factors affecting the learning of foreign language vocabulary: Imagery keyword mediators and phonological short-term memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 46. 533–558.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
eSpindle Learning. 2015. Answers to common questions about our vocabulary and spelling program. LearnThatWord. https://www.learnthat.org/pages/view/faq.html (accessed 3 March 2015)
Harris, D. P. 1969. Testing English as a second language. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Jarvis, S. 2009. Lexical transfer. In A. Pavlenko (ed.), The bilingual mental lexicon: Interdisciplinary approaches, 99–124. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Kroll, J. F. & E. Stewart. 1994. Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language 33. 149–174.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Logan, J. M. & D. A. Balota. 2008. Expanded vs. equal interval spaced retrieval practice: Exploring different schedules of spacing and retention interval in younger and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 15. 257–280.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mondria, J. A. 2003. The effects of inferring, verifying, and memorizing on the retention of L2 word meanings: An experimental comparison of the “Meaning-Inferred Method” and the “Meaning-Given Method.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 25. 473–499.Google Scholar
Mondria, J. A. & B. Wiersma. 2004. Receptive, productive and receptive+productive L2 vocabulary learning: What difference does it make? In P. Bogaards & B. Laufer, (eds.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing, 79–100. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Nakata, T. 2011. Computer-assisted second language vocabulary learning in a paired-associate paradigm: A critical investigation of flashcard software. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24. 17–38.
Nakata, T. 2013. Optimising second language vocabulary learning from flashcards (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington.
Nakata, T. in press. Does repeated practice make perfect? The effects of within-session repeated retrieval on second language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
Nakata, T. & S. A. Webb. 2016. Vocabulary learning exercises: Evaluating a selection of exercises commonly featured in language learning materials. In B. Tomlinson, (ed.), SLA research and materials development for language learning, 123–138. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Nation, I. S. P. 2013. Learning vocabulary in another language, 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. & S. A. Webb. 2011. Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Prihoda, T. J., R. N. Pinckard, C. A. McMahan & A. C. Jones. 2006. Correcting for guessing increases validity in multiple-choice examinations in an oral and maxillofacial pathology course. Journal of Dental Education 70. 378–386.Google Scholar
Pyc, M. A. & K. A. Rawson. 2009. Testing the retrieval effort hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory and Language 60. 437–447.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Read, J. 2004. Plumbing the depths: How should the construct of vocabulary knowledge be defined? In P. Bogaards & B. Laufer (eds.), Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing, 209–227. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Schmitt, N. 1997. Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy, 199–227. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schneider, V. I., A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne. 2002. What is learned under difficult conditions is hard to forget: Contextual interference effects in foreign vocabulary acquisition, retention, and transfer. Journal of Memory and Language 46. 419–440.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Steinel, M. P., J. H. Hulstijn & W. Steinel. 2007. Second language idiom learning in a paired-associate paradigm: Effects of direction of learning, direction of testing, idiom imageability, and idiom transparency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 29. 449–484.Google Scholar
Webb, S. A. 2008. Receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of L2 learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 30. 79–95.Google Scholar
Yun, S., P. C.Miller, Y. Baek, JJung. & M. Ko. 2008. Improving recall and transfer skills through vocabulary building in web-based second language learning: An examination by item and feedback type. Educational Technology & Society 11. 158–172.Google Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2016-09-27
Published in Print: 2016-09-01