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it - Information Technology

Methods and Applications of Informatics and Information Technology

Editor-in-Chief: Molitor, Paul

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Volume 58, Issue 6 (Dec 2016)

Issues

Dark silicon management: an integrated and coordinated cross-layer approach

Santiago Pagani
  • Corresponding author
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Lars Bauer
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Qingqing Chen
  • Chair of Electronic Design Automation, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Elisabeth Glocker
  • Chair for Technical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Frank Hannig
  • Department of Computer Science 12 (Hardware-Software-Co-Design), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 11, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Andreas Herkersdorf
  • Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Heba Khdr
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Anuj Pathania
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Ulf Schlichtmann
  • Chair of Electronic Design Automation, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel
  • Chair for Technical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Mark Sagi
  • Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Éricles Sousa
  • Department of Computer Science 12 (Hardware-Software-Co-Design), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 11, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Philipp Wagner
  • Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Volker Wenzel
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Thomas Wild
  • Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany Germany
  • Email:
/ Jörg Henkel
  • Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Germany
  • Email:
Published Online: 2016-09-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/itit-2016-0028

Abstract

This paper presents an integrated and coordinated cross-layer sensing and optimization flow for distributed dark silicon management for tiled heterogeneous manycores under a critical temperature constraint. We target some of the key challenges in dark silicon for manycores, such as: directly focusing on power density/temperature instead of considering simple per-chip power constraints, considering tiled heterogeneous architectures with different types of cores and accelerators, handling the large volumes of raw sensor information, and maintaining scalability. Our solution is separated into three abstraction layers: a sensing layer (involving hardware monitors and pre-processing), a dark silicon layer (that derives thermally-safe mappings and voltage/frequency settings), and an agent layer (used for selecting the parallelism of applications and thread-to-core mapping based on alternatives/constraints from the dark silicon layer).

Keywords: Many-cores; architecture; low-power; monitoring; operating system

ACM CCS: Computer systems organization→Architectures

About the article

Santiago Pagani

Dipl.-Ing. Santiago Pagani received his Diploma in Electronics Engineering from the National Technological University (UTN), Argentina in 2010. He is currently part of the research staff at the Chair for Embedded Systems (CES) in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany. From 2003 until 2012, he worked as a hardware and software developer in the industry sector for several companies in Argentina. His research interests include embedded systems, real-time systems, energy-efficient scheduling, and power-/temperature-aware management. He received Best Paper Awards from RTCSA in 2013 and from CODES+ISSS in 2014.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Lars Bauer

Dr.-Ing. Lars Bauer received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 2004 and 2009. He is currently a research group leader and lecturer at the Chair for Embedded Systems (CES) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany. Dr. Bauer received the EDAA Outstanding Dissertations Award, the FZI Outstanding Dissertation Award, the AHS'11 best paper award, and the DATE'08 best paper award for his work on adaptive reconfigurable systems. His current research interests include architectures and management for adaptive multi-/many-core systems.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Qingqing Chen

Qingqing Chen received his B.Eng. degree in Biomedical Engineering from Zhejiang University, China in 2005, and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology from Technical University of Munich, Germany in 2008. He is currently a doctoral research candidate at the Institute for Electronic Design Automation, Technical University of Munich, Germany. His current research interests include hardware monitoring system for heterogeneous computing architectures, aging analysis of integrated circuits, hardware security, and physical cryptography.

Chair of Electronic Design Automation, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Elisabeth Glocker

Dipl.-Ing. Elisabeth Glocker received her B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology from Technical University of Munich, Germany in 2009. After receiving her Dipl.-Ing. degree in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology in 2010, she is currently a Doctoral Research Candidate in the Institute for Technical Electronics at the Technical University of Munich. Her current research interests are in the areas of MPSoC computing systems, temperature sensing and monitoring systems in general.

Chair for Technical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Frank Hannig

Dr.-Ing. Frank Hannig leads the Architecture and Compiler Design Group in the CS Department at Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany, since 2004. He received a diploma degree in an interdisciplinary course of study in EE and CS from the University of Paderborn, Germany in 2000 and a Ph.D. degree (Dr.-Ing.) in CS from FAU in 2009. His main research interests are the design of massively parallel architectures, ranging from dedicated hardware to multi-core architectures, mapping methodologies for domain-specific computing, and architecture/compiler co-design. Frank has authored or coauthored more than 120 peer-reviewed publications. He serves on the program committees of several international conferences (ARC, ASAP, CODES+ISSS, DATE, DASIP, SAC). Frank is a senior member of the IEEE.

Department of Computer Science 12 (Hardware-Software-Co-Design), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 11, 91058 Erlangen, Germany

Andreas Herkersdorf

Prof. Dr. Andreas Herkersdorf is director of the chair for Integrated Systems at Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany. He received a Dipl.-Ing. degree in electrical engineering from TUM in 1987, and a Ph.D. from ETH Zurich in 1991. Between 1988 and 2003 he has been with the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland. His research interests include reconfigurable multi-processor VLSI architectures for IP networking and automotive applications, system level SoC modeling and design space exploration, and self-adaptive fault-tolerant computing.

Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Heba Khdr

Heba Khdr is a Ph.D. student at the Chair for embedded Systems (CES) in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany since 2011. She received her B.Sc in Informatics Engineering from University of Aleppo, Syria in 2005 with an excellent grade and the first rank. Her research interests are thermal management and resource management in many core systems. In 2012 she received Research Student Award from KIT. She received Best Paper Award from CODES+ISSS in 2014.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Anuj Pathania

Anuj Pathania is a Ph.D. student at the Chair for Embedded Systems (CES) in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. His research focuses on resource management algorithms with focus on performance-, power- and thermal efficiency in embedded systems domain. He has published papers in top peer reviewed conferences in the field like ASPLOS, DAC, ISLPED and DATE.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Ulf Schlichtmann

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulf Schlichtmann heads the Chair for Electronic Design Automation at Technical University of Munich (TUM). He received the Dipl.-Ing. and the Dr.-Ing. degrees in electrical engineering and information technology from TUM in 1990 and 1995, respectively. He was with Siemens AG and Infineon Technologies AG from 1994 to 2003, where he held various technical and management positions in design automation, design libraries, IP reuse, and product development. He has been with TUM since 2003. He served as the Dean of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering from 2008 to 2011. His current research interests include computer-aided design of electronic circuits and systems, with an emphasis on designing reliable and robust systems.

Chair of Electronic Design Automation, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel is head of the Institute of Technical Electronics at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany since 1996. She studied electrical engineering in Karlsruhe and physics in Freiburg and received her doctorate at TUM. From 1981 to 1996, she worked in the Corporate Research department of Siemens, ultimately as the head of a research sector with projects related to yield optimization, integrated memory devices and ICs for digital hearing aids. She is a member of the German National Academy of Science and Engineering acatech. Her current research interests include low power, deep submicron CMOS circuits, reliability and yield modeling and design for manufacturability, circuits with novel devices and nanomagnetic computing. She has published more than 300 scientific papers and holds more than 50 patents or pending patents.

Chair for Technical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Mark Sagi

Mark Sagi is currently working towards the PhD degree at Technical University of Munich (TUM). He received his BS and MS degrees in electrical engineering and information technology from TUM in 2013 and 2015, respectively. His research interests focus on power monitoring, self-adaptive and distributed power management for multicore SoCs.

Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Éricles Sousa

Éricles Sousa received his M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil in 2011. Since 2012, he is a research assistant at the chair for Hardware/Software Co-Design, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany. His main research interests include reconfigurable computing, design of heterogeneous MPSoC architectures, and coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays.

Department of Computer Science 12 (Hardware-Software-Co-Design), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 11, 91058 Erlangen, Germany

Philipp Wagner

Dipl.-Ing. Philipp Wagner received his Diploma degree from Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany, in 2012. Currently He is research assistant at the Institute for Integrated Systems at TUM, focusing on debugging and diagnosis of software applications running on Multi-Core Systems-on-Chip.

Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Volker Wenzel

Dipl.-Phys. Volker Wenzel received his Diploma from the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany, in 2013. Currently he is a research assistant at the Chair for Embedded Systems (CES) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Thomas Wild

Dr.-Ing. Thomas Wild received a Dipl.-Ing. degree in 1989 and a Dr.-Ing. degree in 2003, both from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany. He is member of the scientific staff at the Institute for Integrated Systems of TUM and is there responsible for the activities in the area of multicore and network processing architectures. His current research interests comprise system on chip (SoC) architectures, networks on chip (NoC), system level design methodologies and design space exploration.

Chair for Integrated Systems, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Jörg Henkel

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Henkel received his PhD from Braunschweig University with Summa cum Laude. He is currently directing the Chair for Embedded Systems (CES). He is the Chairman of the IEEE Computer Society (Germany Section), the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Design & Test Magazine, and was the Editor-in-Chief of the ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (ACM TECS) for two consecutive terms. He holds ten US patent, is a Fellow of the IEEE, has given around ten keynotes at various international conferences, and several Best Paper/Poster Awards at DAC, DATE, ICCAD, CODES+ISSS, etc.

Chair for Embedded Systems (CES), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany


Revised: 2016-08-16

Accepted: 2016-08-22

Received: 2016-05-10

Published Online: 2016-09-16

Published in Print: 2016-12-28


Citation Information: it - Information Technology, ISSN (Online) 2196-7032, ISSN (Print) 1611-2776, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/itit-2016-0028.

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