Abbott, J. A., and J. G. Buta. 2002. “Effect of Anti-Browning Treatment on Color and Firmness of Fresh-Cut Pears.” Journal of Food Quality 25 (4):333–41. [Crossref]
Adimabuno, A. M. 2010. “Marketing and Market Queens: A Case of Tomato Farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana.” PhD thesis, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, Germany. http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2010/2335/2335.pdf.
Bell, A., F. Mazaud, and O. Mück. 1999. Guidelines for the Analysis of Post-production Systems. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. http://www.gtz.de/post_harvest/.
Blair, R. D., and J. L. Harrison. 2010. Monopsony in Law and Economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Buccola, S. T. 1985. “Pricing Efficiency in Centralized and Noncentralized Markets.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 67 (3):583–90. [Crossref]
Coulter, J., A. Goodland, A. Tallontire, and R. Stringfellow. 1999. Marrying Farmer Cooperation and Contract Farming for Service Provision in a Liberalizing Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Overseas Development Institute. Natural Resources Perspectives, No. 48. http://www.odi.org.uk/nrp/48.html.
D’Aspremont, C., A. Jacquemin, J. J. Gabszewick, and J. A. Weymark. 1983. “On the Stability of Collusive Price Leadership.” Canadian Journal of Economics 16 (1):17–25. [Crossref]
Ellison, G. 1994. “Theories of Cartel Stability and the Joint Executive Committee.” The RAND Journal of Economics 25 (1):37–57. [Crossref]
Fafchamps, M., and R. V. Hill. 2005. “Selling at the Farmgate or Travelling To Market.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87 (3):717–34. [Crossref]
Furlong, W. J. and Slotsve, G. A. (1983). Will That Be Pickup or Delivery? An Alternative Spatial Pricing Strategy, Bell Journal of Economics 14 (1):271–4. [Crossref]
Ghana National Tomato Traders and Transporters Association. 2010. “Personal correspondence with Lydia Aforley Anum.” Accra, Ghana.
Gil, M. I., M. A. Conesa, and F. Artés. 2002. “Quality Changes in Fresh Cut Tomato as Affected by Modified Atmosphere Packaging.” Postharvest Biology and Technology 25 (2):199–207. [Crossref] [Web of Science]
GNA (Ghana News Agency). 2010. “Price of Tomatoes in Ho Central Market Controlled by Cartel (9 February).” http://www.ghananewsagency.org/details/Economics/Price-of-tomatoes-in-Ho-central-market-controlled-by-cartel/?ci=3&ai=12286.
Hong, J., and K. C. Gross. 2000. “Involvement of Ethylene in Development of Chilling Injury in Fresh-Cut Tomato Slices During Cold Storage.” Journal of the American Society for Horticulture Science 125 (6):736–41.
Ihle, R., J. Amikuzuno, and S. von Cramon-Taubadel. 2010. “L‘intégration des marchés avec et sans échanges commerciaux directs: le cas de la tomate au Ghana.” Revue D’Économie Du Développement 24 (1):21–46.
Katz, L. F., and L. H. Summers. 1989. “Industry Rents: Evidence and Implications.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics(1):209–75.
Key, N., and D. Runsten. 1999. “Contract Farming, Smallholders, and Rural Development in Latin America: The Organization of Agroprocessing Firms and the Scale of Outgrower Production.” World Development 27 (2):381–401. [Crossref]
KIT and IIRR. 2008. Trading Up: Building Cooperation Between Farmers and Traders in Africa. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT); Nairobi: International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR).
Lenné, J. M., and A. F. Ward. 2010. “Improving the Efficiency of Domestic Vegetable Marketing Systems in East Africa.” Outlook on Agriculture 39 (1):31–40. [Crossref]
Lyon, F. 2003. “Trader Associations and Urban Food Systems in Ghana: Institutionalist Approaches to Understanding Urban Collective Action.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27 (1):11–23. [Crossref]
Orchard, J. E., and E. K. Suglo. 1999. Integrated Food Crops Systems Projects: Enhancing Smallholder Livelihood through Reducing Costs and Adding Value to Agricultural Production. Final Technical Report, June. UK: Natural Institute and Ministry of Agriculture Ghana.
Osborne, M. J., and A. Rubenstein. 1990. Bargaining and Markets. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pindyck, R. 1979. “The Cartelization of World Commodity Markets.” American Economic Review 69:154–8.
Ravallion, M. 1986. “Testing Market Integration.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 68 (1):102–09. [Crossref]
Robinson, E. J. Z., and S. L. Kolavalli. 2010a. The Case of Tomato in Ghana: Marketing. Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) Working Paper 20. Washington, DC: IFPRI, Development and Strategy Governance Division.
Robinson, E. J. Z., and S. L. Kolavalli. 2010b. The Case of Tomato in Ghana: Productivity. Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) Working Paper 19. Washington, DC: IFPRI, Development and Strategy Governance Division.
Selten, R. 1973. “A Simple Model of Imperfect Competition, Where Four Are Few and Six are Many.” International Journal of Game Theory 2 (3):141–201. [Crossref]
Sexton, R. J. 1990. “Imperfect Competition in Agricultural Markets and the Role of Cooperatives: A Spatial Analysis.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 72 (3):709–20. [Crossref]
Sexton, R. J., C. L. Kling, and H. F. Carman. 1991. “Market Integration, Efficiency of Arbitrage, and Imperfect Competition: Methodology and Application to U.S. Celery.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73 (3):568–80. [Crossref]
Shepherd, W. A. 2005. Associations of Market Traders, Their Roles and Potential for Further Development. Rome: FAO.
Springer-Heinze, A. 2005. “Shaping Value Chains for Development: Experience in Development Assistance.” Paper presented at conference on international agricultural research for development, Stuttgart–Hohenheim, Germany, October 11–13, 2005. http://www.proceedings2008.tropentag.de/2005/abstracts/full/611.pdf. Accessed November 15, 2010.
Stigler, G. J., and R. A. Sherwin. 1985. “The Extent of the Market.” Journal of Law and Economics 37 (3):555–85.
About the article
Published Online: 2013-05-22
Limited processing is a typical characteristic of many agricultural markets in developing countries (see Sexton 1990).
When data were collected, one Ghanaian cedi (GHS) was equivalent to US$0.71.
Table 6 in the Appendix presents results of a simple OLS of our model specifications. While in terms of significance the OLS results are similar to the results in the instrumental variable regressions, they are smaller in magnitude.
See Fafchamps, M. and R. V. Hill. 2005 for similar methodology.
See, for example, http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=83980.