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Journal of Applied Geodesy

Editor-in-Chief: Kahmen, Heribert / Rizos, Chris

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 1.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.367
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.908

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Volume 7, Issue 2


Velocity Field across the Carmel Fault Calculated by Extended Free Network Adjustment Constraints

Gilad Even-Tzur
  • Corresponding author
  • Division of Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel
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/ Joerg Reinking
  • Department of Construction and Geoinformation, Jade University of Applied Sciences, Oldenburg, Germany
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Published Online: 2013-05-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2013-0054


The Carmel Fault is one of the major geological structures of northern Israel. It is the northwestern part of Carmel-Tirtza Fault System and a northwestern branch of the Dead Sea Fault. The Carmel Fault region is covered by a monitoring geodetic network consisting of 23 sites, which were measured four times between 1999 and 2010 by means of GPS. The site velocities can be estimated only if the datum of the network has not been changed between measurement epochs. The GPS vectors must be adjusted so that the datum will remain undisturbed throughout the measurement campaigns. Usually we assume that GPS vectors define the network datum components of orientation and scale. Fluctuations in the GPS orbits could affect the orientation and scale between monitoring campaigns and therefore, in this study, we assume that GPS vectors are not immune to changes in their datum content. An appropriate approach is taken to prevent the inclusion of these components in the adjustment of a 4D network. If not, the result will be an inevitable mixture between the deformation parameters and the datum components of the GPS vectors. In this study the GPS vectors from each campaign are stripped from their datum content using the extended free network adjustment constraints. The datumless measurements are used to define the datum by preliminary coordinates and linear constraints, which remain constant for all monitoring campaigns, as well as to define the position of the network points and their velocities. Later on, the variations across the network geometry can be modeled by means of a physical model.

Keywords: Velocity Field; Carmel Fault; Extended Free Network; GPS

About the article

Published Online: 2013-05-18

Published in Print: 2013-05-01

Citation Information: Journal of Applied Geodesy, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 75–82, ISSN (Online) 1862-9024, ISSN (Print) 1862-9016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2013-0054.

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