Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Applied Geodesy

Editor-in-Chief: Kahmen, Heribert / Rizos, Chris

CiteScore 2018: 1.61

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.532
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.064

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 7, Issue 3


Adjustment of survey networks by topological grid search

Bruce R. Harvey
  • Corresponding author
  • Surveying & Geospatial Engineering School of Civil & Environmental Engineering The University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney 2052 AUSTRALIA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-08-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2013-0006


The adjustment of survey networks by a new topological grid search (TGS) approach offers some advantages compared to conventional least squares (LS) solutions. TGS can solve systems of highly non-linear, redundant or rank defect equations, and with integer or real number parameters. The observations of survey (geodetic) data can be combined with models of geophysical processes. In this paper three numerical examples are given to assist with the understanding of the TGS process and to compare it with conventional LS and L1 adjustments. A new investigation of the residuals of the observations is included and the effects of gross errors. The application of TGS to network rank defect problems and to integer parameters is presented in this paper for the first time.

The TGS approach uses an m-dimensional grid of points around starting estimates of the values of the parameters. The method does not require a design matrix that is usually formed from partial derivatives of model equations, as is required in LS and robust L1 norm (L1) solutions. Topologically each observation is tested against the model values calculated for each of the many possible combinations of the grid points. Those grid points which satisfy the set of conditions that the calculated value differs from the observed value by less than some criteria are accepted. From this set of multidimensional grid points, which define a space including the solution, we compute the mean values, which correspond to an estimate of the solution parameters

Keywords: Numerical adjustment; topological; grid search; least squares; robust L1

About the article

Published Online: 2013-08-06

Published in Print: 2013-08-01

Citation Information: Journal of Applied Geodesy, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 205–215, ISSN (Online) 1862-9024, ISSN (Print) 1862-9016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2013-0006.

Export Citation

© 2013 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co..Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Stathis C Stiros and Vasso Saltogianni
SpringerPlus, 2014, Volume 3, Number 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in