Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Applied Geodesy

Editor-in-Chief: Kahmen, Heribert / Rizos, Chris

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2017: 1.23

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.445
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.357

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 11, Issue 3


Wi-Fi location fingerprinting using an intelligent checkpoint sequence

Günther Retscher
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien – Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hannes Hofer
Published Online: 2017-02-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2016-0030


For Wi-Fi positioning location fingerprinting is very common but has the disadvantage that it is very labour consuming for the establishment of a database (DB) with received signal strength (RSS) scans measured on a large number of known reference points (RPs). To overcome this drawback a novel approach is developed which uses a logical sequence of intelligent checkpoints (iCPs) instead of RPs distributed in a regular grid. The iCPs are the selected RPs which have to be passed along the way for navigation from a start point A to the destination B. They are twofold intelligent because of the fact that they depend on their meaningful selection and because of their logical sequence in their correct order. Thus, always the following iCP is known due to a vector graph allocation in the DB and only a small limited number of iCPs needs to be tested when matching the current RSS scans. This reduces the required processing time significantly. It is proven that the iCP approach achieves a higher success rate than conventional approaches. In average correct matching results of 90.0% were achieved using a joint DB including RSS scans of all employed smartphones. An even higher success rate is achieved if the same mobile device is used in both the training and positioning phase.

Keywords: Wi-Fi; location fingerprinting; training phase; intelligent checkpoints (iCPs); logical sequence


  • [1]

    Bahl P, Padmanabhan VN (2000) RADAR: An In-building RF-based User Location and Tracking System. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Tel-Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, Vol. 2, 775–784.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Chang N, Rashidzadeh R, Ahmadi M (2010) Robust Indoor Positioning Using Differential Wi-Fi Access Points. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 56:3, 1860–1867.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Chen R, Pei L, Liu J, Leppäkoski H (2012) WLAN and Bluetooth Positioning in Smart Phones. In Chen R (ed.): Ubiquitous Positioning and Mobile Location-Based Services in Smart Phones, IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA, 44–68.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Chen L, Li B, Zhao K, Rizos C, Zheng Z (2013) An Improved Algorithm to Generate a Wi-Fi Fingerprint Database for Indoor Positioning. Sensors 13:8, 11085–11096.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Hofer H (2015) Kombinierte Indoor/Outdoor Positionierung mit Smartphones. Master thesis, Faculty of Informatics, TU Wien, Austria (in German).Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Li B, Kam J, Lui J, Dempster AG (2007) Use of Directional Information in Wireless LAN Based Indoor Positioning. In Proceedings of the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society IGNSS Symposium, Sydney, Australia, December 4–6, 11 pp.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Moghtadaiee V, Dempster AG (2015) Vector Distance Measure Comparison in Indoor Location Fingerprinting. In Proceedings of the IGNSS 2015 Conference, Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Australia, July 14–16, 16 pp.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Retscher G, Hofer H (2015) A Novel Approach for Wi-Fi Fingerprinting Using Logical Sequences of Intelligent Checkpoints. In Proceedings of the IGNSS 2015 Conference, Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Australia, July 14–16, 15 pp.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Retscher G, Joksch J (2016) Analysis of Nine Vector Distances for Fingerprinting in Multiple-SSID Wi-Fi Networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation IPIN 2016, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain, October 4–6, 4 pp.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-07-12

Accepted: 2017-01-26

Published Online: 2017-02-14

Published in Print: 2017-09-26

Citation Information: Journal of Applied Geodesy, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 197–205, ISSN (Online) 1862-9024, ISSN (Print) 1862-9016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2016-0030.

Export Citation

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Yan Li, Simon Williams, Bill Moran, Allison Kealy, and Guenther Retscher
Sensors, 2018, Volume 18, Number 8, Page 2602
Hannes Hofer and Guenther Retscher
Journal of Location Based Services, 2017, Page 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in