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Glossary of terms: Words in italics refer to other glossary terms Alpha: The 8-13 hz EEG oscillations primarily associated with the thalamus activity Alpha-beta. The range of oscillations in the alpha to beta range, 8-30 hz. Used to assist with the classification of Mu (8-30hz) in terms of mu-alpha (8-13hz) and mu-beta (12-30hz).
AMPA/KAINATE: One of the two primary classes of cortical neurons, these are the excitatory neurons. Astrocytes: Cortical Glial cells (support cells that outnumber neurons) that are primarily the most dense at the uppermost cortical layers. Previously considered just support cells, newer research suggest a role in computation function. Maybe gain capacitors for cortical columns.
Autobiographical processing: The brain processes which string together episodes into a sequence, that may for example tell a story.
Basal ganglia: A subcortical structure of various linked parts associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or re-enforcement "habits" cognitive, emotional functions and action selection.
Beta: The 12-30hz EEG oscillations found in the striatum to cortex activity.
Central pacemaker: Areas in the centre of the brain which are thought to be the source clock for a wider range of neural oscillations.
Cingulate: Is the part of the cortex which wrap around the limbic system and is so highly integrated with it, and separate from the corpus callosum some propose it is part of the limbic system. Its function seems to be to integrate and resolve conflictions between cortex and limbic system.
Cortical surface gyration: The folds of the cortex. As neuron to glia ratio increases the gyrations increase. Increased gyration is thought to be linked to intelligence.
Corticolimbic: A reference to the cortex and limbic system in terms of its integrated function.
Delta: The 0-4hz EEG oscillation. Primarily subcortical, but also found in the cortex to thalamus cycle.
Dynamic attention allocation : Frontal cortex, executive control can suppress various signals in other areas of the brain to allow focus on other stimulus, which could originate as Spreading waves arising from lateral inhibition.
Dynamic Causal Modeling: The aim of dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is to infer the causal architecture of coupled or distributed dynamical neural systems. It is a Bayesian model comparison procedure that rests on comparing models of how data were generated Episodic encoding and recall: Episodes are memories which are a set of associations that cover many sensory modalities. e.g. The experience of being in a particular location with somebody.
Event Related Potential, ERP : is the brains EKG equivalent for the heart. It is where we look when we measure the brains perceptual operation at its highest and most integrated level.
Event related Desynchronization (ERD): This is the lowering of the brains ongoing stationary resting state energy. Mostly found as cortical lateral inhibition.
GABAA/GABAC : One of the two primary classes of cortical neurons, these are the inhibitory neurons. Gamma rhythm: The 30hz upwards oscillations generated in the cortex. Tend towards decoherence.
Glutamate: The primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the cortex.
Globus pallidus: The globus pallidus is a major component of the basal ganglia core along with the striatum “Greedy growth” principle: A mathematical term now used for neurons to describe each neurons dendrite growth in terms of a mathematical power law Grey to white matter ratios: (or the inverse). The ratio of grey to white matter either in individual brain areas, modules or the entire system.
Hippocampus: Primary roles is the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, recall and spatial navigation.
Hippocampal theta: The 4-8hz EEG oscillations primarily associated with hippocampal activity.
Hopf bifurcation: A local bifurcation in which a fixed point of a dynamical system loses stability as a pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues of the linearization around the fixed point cross the imaginary axis of the complex plane.
Invariants: Both mathematical and computational neuroscience invariants have roughly the same general equivalence.
Lateral inhibition : an excited neuron or set of neurons such as cortical columns can reduce the activity of its neighbours. This can even extend to transcallosal inhibition across the two cortical hemispheres.
Limbic system. The set of subcortical structures which are separate from the brainstem and cerebellum.
Mu wave: EEG oscillation in the range 8-30 hz. It mirrors the alpha to beta range but has no known subcortical source, so maybe a cortical model of the alpha-beta range.
N1-P1 signal: An ERP composite signal associated with visual recognition in the time range of 100ms. There are also other types of N signal.. N just means the signal has a negative energy deviation to baseline, while P is positive. 1 is just an abbreviation so it could be called N100 on its own, just as P3 would also be P300
Non linear cortical activity: A reference to the manner in which most cortical activity is considered to be primarily non linear dynamical in nature.
Non explicit programming: For example programming all the neuronal components into a brain simulation wiring them together and seeing if ERS arises without programming that. But there are various levels of this. i.e. CML is first principle based, so if ERS/ERD arose from its program this would be considered a more pure example. P100-P300 or P600 etc: These are the various positive event related potentials with their onset time (see N1-P1 signal for more clarification) P300: Most well known ERP component occurring at 300ms as it is clearest in decision making and onset of conscious access. All ERP numbers describe the milliseconds of their onset after stimulus Phase coupling - coupled oscillation: Neural oscillations of various frequencies in the brain are found to lock together for a wide variety of neural sub processes, coding, recall and high level perceptual functions.
Phase-locked delta: the timing of spikes in the delta wave becomes phase coupled to the activity of other oscillations, such as alpha.
Phase reset: Neural oscillations may reset another set of neural activities, such as one set of oscillations, restarting the phase of another when coupled.
Re-enforcement learning: The brain processes associated with learning and repeating routines and habits.
Sensory routing: Allocation of inputs to outputs, mostly associated with thalamus function.
Septal areas: the region of the cerebral hemisphere, forming the medial wall of the lateral ventricle's frontal horn Spreading waves: There are many terms for this in neurodynamics, but basically it is mass attractor activity that is non linear dynamic in nature. Sporadic bursts across cortical areas that spread across columns, or even larger macroscopic areas.
Stationary dynamics - stationary resting state. The brain has continuous oscillations such as alpha, delta, beta and mu even when it is not processing information. i.e. just sitting doing nothing.
Striatum: The major input station of the basal ganglia system. [PubMed]
Subthalamic nucleus: The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system Symmetry: For disambiguation in cross discipline use in this paper, mathematical symmetry and asymmetry are different from biological e.g. radial symmetry or bilateral asymmetry. This is clarified as here we attempt to use CML to predict brain signals and structures that are using the biological definitions. So if we mention such terms in a neuroscience context it will not be mathematical. An example is we may say an alpha wave emerges with symmetrical spread over a symmetrical structure like the thalamus, but if we were to describe the computations the use of the term symmetry would not automatically infer a mathematical invariance.
System consolidation: The ability of the brain to filter out irrelevant information over longer term time periods. Thalamic reticular nucleus: A sheet of inhibitory neurons which surround the thalamus.
Thalamus: The brain module where nearly all incoming information passes through.
Thalamocortical: Refers to the interaction between thalamus and cortex which is usually an ongoing loop driven by locked Delta, Gamma and Alpha oscillations.
Third ventricle: The brain ventricle most central to the brain, in between the thalamus.
About the article
Published Online: 2014-04-25
Published in Print: 2013-12-01
© by Felix Lanzalaco. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)