Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

2 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2015: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.779

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.392
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.470
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.694

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2299-4831
See all formats and pricing

Nectar of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd (Rhamnaceae): Dynamics of Secretion and Potential for Honey Production

Adgaba Nuru
  • Chair of Engineer Abdullah Baqshan, for Bee Research, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Email:
/ Awad M. Awad
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
/ Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi
  • Chair of Engineer Abdullah Baqshan, for Bee Research, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
/ Abdulaziz S. Alqarni
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
/ Sarah E. Radloff
  • Department of Statistics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Published Online: 2013-01-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10289-012-0023-9

Abstract

The nectar secretion of Ziziphus flowers was studied by removing and measuring the nectar every four hours, for two consecutive days, from 88 flowers of four trees (‘repeated sampling’). In another 120 flowers from the same trees, the accumulated sugar was measured at the end of the flowering stage. The mass of the nectar sugar was determined following the washing technique. The total amount of sugar per tree was calculated by multiplying the number of flowers per tree by the average mass of nectar sugar secreted per flower. The average mass of sugar produced per flower in repeated sampling was 0.79±0.54 mg/flower (range 0.09 - 2.48 mg). The average mass of sugar per flower for each of the four investigated trees was 1.43±0.53 mg, 0.72±0.27 mg, 0.94±0.39 mg and 0.37±0.26 mg, respectively. The differences among trees was statistically significant. For accumulated nectar, the overall average mass of sugar per flower was 0.55±0.23 mg (range 0.06 - 1.29 mg) and the average values for flowers on the investigated trees of Z. spina-christi were 0.69±0.26 mg, 0.41±0.16 mg, 0.51±0.16 mg and 0.53±0.21 mg; these variations were statistically significant. The average mass of nectar sugar calculated for the flowers with accumulated nectar sampling was significantly lower than the average mass of sugar recorded for repeated nectar sugar samplings (0.79±0.54 mg). According to this study, one Ziziphus tree is estimated to produce 3.6 kg of honey (range 2.2 - 5.2 kg), equivalent to about 900 kg of honey/ha (range 550 - 1300 kg). These figures indicate the high potential value of the plant for honey production. Nectar secretion was positively correlated with temperature, indicating the adaptation of the tree to hot climates.

Keywords : nectar secretion; nectar sugars concentration; melliferous plant; Ziziphus spina-christi.

  • Bastiaan M. (1984) - The Sex Life of Flowers. Facts on File Publishers, New York, pp. 110-111.

  • Castellanos M. C., Wilson P., Tho m son J. D. (2002) - Dynamic nectar replenishment in flowers of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Bo t., 89: 111-118.

  • Chalcoff V. R., Aizen M. A., Galetto, L. (2006) - Nectar concentration and composition of 26 species from the temperate forest of South America. Ann. Botany, 97(3): 413-421.

  • Crane E., Walker P., Day R. (1984) - Directory of Important World Honey Sources. International Bee Research Association, London, pp. 384.

  • Ettershank G., Ettershank J. A. (1993) - Tasmanian leatherwoods (Eucryphia spp.): floral phenology and the insects associated with flowers, Tasmanian National Rainforest Conservation Program Report no. 11. Forestry Commission, Hobart.

  • Farkas Á., Orosz-Kovács Zs. (2003) - Nectar secretion dynamics of Hungarian local pear cultivars. Plant. Syst. Evol., 238: 57-67.

  • Galetto L., Bernardello G. (2004) - Floral nectaries, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in six Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae) in relation to pollinators. Ann. Botany, 94: 269-280. [Crossref]

  • Horváth A., Orosz-Kovács Zs. (2004) - Individual variability of nectar secretion in the flowers of plum cv. ‘Reine-Claude d’Althan. Acta Hortic., 636: 357-363.

  • Johnson R. A., Wichern D. W. (2007) - Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, 6th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 773.

  • Keasar T., Shmida A. (2009) - An evaluation of Israeli forestry trees and shrubs as potential forage plants for bees. IsraelJ. Plant Sci., 57: 49-64. [Web of Science]

  • Khanbash M. S. (2003) - Relationship between the density of Sidir tree Ziziphus spina-christi and honey production. In Preceedings of 3rdArab Beekeepers Association Conference,Tanta Egypt, 28-31 December 2003, pp. 102 -110 (in Arabic).

  • Kim M. S., Kim S. H., Han J., Kang M. S., Park Y. K. (2011) - Honeybee visit and nectar secretion characteristics of the Chinese Hawthorn Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge. J. Apic., The Apicultural Society ofKorea, 26(1): 11-14.

  • Mačukanović M., Duletić S., Jocić G. (2004) - Nectar production in three melliferous species of Lamiaceae in natural and experimental conditions. Acta Vet. - Beograd, 54(5-6): 475-487.

  • Mallick S. A. (2000) - Technique for washing nectar from the flowers of Tasmanian leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida Eucryphiaceae). Austral. Ecol. 25: 210-212. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-9993.2000.01010.x. [Crossref]

  • Masierowska M. L. (2003) - Floral nectaries and nectar production in brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and white mustard (Sinapisalba) (Brassicaceae) Plant Syst. Evol., 238: 97-107.

  • Mohr N. A., Jay S. C. (1990) - Nectar production of selected cultivars of Brassicacampestris L. and Brassica napus L. J. Apic.Res., 29(2): 95-100.

  • Nagy Z. (2002) - Egyre népszerűbb növényünk a facélia III. Méhészet, 50(4): 22 In. Nectar production for the Hungarian Honey Industry. Reviewed by Farkas, A. and Zajácz, E. (2007) Eur. J. Plant Sci. Biotech.. Global Science Book, pp. 125 -151.

  • NAS (National Academy of Science) (1980) - Fire wood crops, shrub and tree species for energy production. Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations. Washington, D.C.

  • Nepi M., Guarnieri M., Pacini E. (2001) - Nectar secretion, reabsorption, and sugar composition in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo. Int. J. Plant Sci., 162: 353-358.

  • Orwa C., Mutua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R., Simons A. (2009) - [online] Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide, version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Zizyphus_spina-christi.pdf (accessed, December 2011).

  • Pesti J. (1976) - Daily fluctuations in the sugar content of nectar and periodicity of secretion in the Compositae. Acta Agron. Hung., 25(1-2): 5-17.

  • Petanidou, T., Smets, E. (1996) - Does temperature stress induce nectar secretion in Mediterranean plants? New Phytol., 133: 513 - 518.

  • Roubik D. W. (1991) - Aspects of Africanized honey bee ecology in tropical America. In: M. Spivak, D. J. C. Fletcher and M. D. Breed (ed.). The African honey bee. Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 259-281.

  • Scholte P., Khuleidi A. W., Kessler J. J. (1991) - The vegetation of the Republic of Yemen western part. Environmental Protection Council, Agriculture Research Authority, Range and Livestock Improvement Project, Dhamar.

  • Shenouda R. (2004) - Saudi Arabia’s taste for honey, [online] www.fas.usda.gov/info/agexporter/1998/July%201998/saudi.html, (accessed February 2012).

  • StatSoft, Inc. (2010) - STATISTICA, version

  • 10.0, www.statsoft.com.

  • Szabo T. I., Najda H. G. (1985) - Flowering, nectar secretion and pollen production of some legumes in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada. J. Apic. Res., 24(2): 102-106.

  • Weast R. (Ed.) (1986) - CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 67th ed., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

  • Wyatt R., Broyles S. B., Derda G. S. (1992) - Environmental influences on nectar production in milkweeds (Ascelapias syriaca and A. exaltata). Am. J. Bot., 79: 636-642.

  • Zajácz E., Zaják Á., Szalai-Mátray E., Szalai T. (2006) - Nectar production of some sunflower hybrids. J. Apic. Sci., 50(2): 7-11.

  • Zsidei B. (1993) - Méhészeti ismeretek. Fazekas és fiai nyomdája, Szarvas, in: Nectar production for the Hungarian Honey Industry. Reviewed by Farkas, A. and Zajácz, E. (2007) Eur.J. Plant Sci. Biotech. Global Science Book, pp. 125 -151.

About the article

Published Online: 2013-01-12

Published in Print: 2012-12-01


Citation Information: Journal of Apicultural Science, ISSN (Print) 2299-4831, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10289-012-0023-9. Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Adgaba Nuru, Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi, Yilma T. Tena, Awraris G. Shenkut, Mohammad J. Ansari, and Anwer Al-Maktary
Journal of Apicultural Science, 2015, Volume 59, Number 2

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in